Article

A comparison between human magnetostimulation thresholds in whole-body and head/neck gradient coils. Magn Reson Med

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.4). 08/2001; 46(2):386-94. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.1202
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gradient coil magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in a group of 20 volunteers in both a whole-body gradient coil and a head/neck gradient coil. Both coils were operated using both x and y axes simultaneously (xy oblique mode). The waveform applied was a 64-lobe trapezoidal train with 1-ms flat-tops and varying rise times. Thresholds were based on the subjects' perception of stimulation, and painful sensations were not elicited. Thresholds were expressed in terms of the total gradient excursion required to cause stimulation as a function of the duration of the excursion. Thresholds for each subject were fit to a linear model, and values for the threshold curve slope (SR(min)) and vertical axis intercept (DeltaG(min)) were extracted. For the body coil, the mean values were: SR(min) = 62.2 mT/m/ms, DeltaG(min) = 44.4 mT/m. For the head/neck coil, the mean values were: SR(min) = 87.3 mT/m/ms, DeltaG(min) = 78.9 mT/m. These curve parameters were combined with calculated values for the induced electric field as a function of position within the coil to yield the tissue specific parameters E(r) (electric field rheobase) and tau(c) (chronaxie). For tissue stimulated within the body coil, the mean values were: E(r) = 1.8 V/m, tau(c) = 770 micros. For tissue stimulated within the head/neck coil, the mean values were: E(r) = 1.3 V/m, tau(c) = 1100 micros. Scalar potential contributions were not included in the calculation of induced electric fields. The mean threshold curves were combined with the gradient system performance curves to produce operational limit curves. The operational limit curves for the head/neck coil system were verified to be higher than those of the whole-body coil; however, the head/neck system was also found to be physiologically limited over a greater range of its operation than was the body coil. Subject thresholds between the two coils were not well correlated.

0 Followers
 · 
87 Views
  • Source
    • "In this study, threshold was simply defined as any sensation or muscular contraction invoked by the stimulator, as was the case in work by others (Schaefer et al 2000, Cohen et al 1990, Irnich and Schmitt 1992, Chronik and Rutt 2001b, Bourland et al 1996, 2001, Budinger et al 1991, Ham et al 1997, Havel et al 1997). Therefore, the measured threshold curves reported here are probably combinations of sensory and motor fiber thresholds. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) resulting from electric fields induced from the rapidly changing magnetic fields of gradient coils is a concern in MRI. Nerves exposed to either electric fields or changing magnetic fields would be expected to display consistent threshold characteristics, motivating the direct application of electric field exposure criteria from the literature to guide the development of gradient magnetic field exposure criteria for MRI. The consistency of electric and magnetic field exposures was tested by comparing chronaxie times for electric and magnetic PNS curves for 22 healthy human subjects. Electric and magnetic stimulation thresholds were measured for exposure of the forearm using both surface electrodes and a figure-eight magnetic coil, respectively. The average chronaxie times for the electric and magnetic field conditions were 109 +/- 11 micros and 651 +/- 53 micros (+/-SE), respectively. We do not propose that these results call into question the basic mechanism, namely that rapidly switched gradient magnetic fields induce electric fields in human tissues, resulting in PNS. However, this result does motivate us to suggest that special care must be taken when using electric field exposure data from the literature to set gradient coil PNS safety standards in MRI.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2009; 54(19):5965-79. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/54/19/020 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parallel magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may be used to increase either the throughput or the speed of the MR imaging experiment. As such, parallel imaging may be accomplished either through a "parallelization" of the MR experiment, or by the use of arrays of sensors. In parallelization, multiple MR scanners (or multiple sensors) are used to collect images from different samples simultaneously. This allows for an increase in the throughput, not the inherent speed, of the MR experiment. Parallel imaging with arrays of sensor coils, on the other hand, makes use of the spatial localization properties of the sensors in an imaging array to allow a reduction in the number of phase encodes required in acquiring an image. This reduced phase-encoding requirement permits an increase in the overall imaging speed by a factor up to the number of sensors in the imaging array. The focus of this dissertation has been the development of cost-effective instrumentation that would enable advances in the state of the art of parallel MR imaging. First, a low-cost desktop MR scanner was developed (< $13,000) for imaging small samples (2.54 cm fields-of view) at low magnetic field strengths (< 0.25 T). The performance of the prototype was verified through bench-top measurements and phantom imaging. The prototype transceiver has demonstrated an SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) comparable to that of a commercial MR system. This scanner could make parallelization of the MR experiment a practical reality, at least in the areas of small animal research and education. A 64-channel receiver for parallel MR imaging with arrays of sensors was also developed. The receiver prototype was characterized through both bench-top tests and phantom imaging. The parallel receiver is capable of simultaneous reception of up to sixty-four, 1 MHz bandwidth MR signals, at imaging frequencies from 63 to 200 MHz, with an SNR performance (on each channel) comparable to that of a single-channel commercial MR receiver. The prototype should enable investigation into the speed increases obtainable from imaging with large arrays of sensors and has already been used to develop a new parallel imaging technique known as single echo acquisition (SEA) imaging.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare thresholds for peripheral nerve stimulation from gradient switching in whole body magnetic resonance (MR) equipment of different design. Threshold data obtained in three experiments were reformatted into a single joint data set describing thresholds for anterio-posterior (AP) gradient orientation and Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) waveforms with bipolar ramp times between 0.07 and 1.2 ms. Reformatting included the use of: a) the rate of change of the maximum field in the patient space as a measure of gradient output, b) lowest observable thresholds, c) lognormal distribution of thresholds, and d) equal standard deviation (SD) of all samples. The joint data fit a hyperbolic threshold function. The residues were not significantly different between experiments. Then expressed in appropriate format, the thresholds for peripheral nerve stimulation in volunteers for whole body MR equipment can be described with a hyperbolic threshold curve with rheobase 18.8 +/- 0.6 Tesla/second and chronaxie 0.36 +/- 0.02 milliseconds.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2002; 15(5):520-5. DOI:10.1002/jmri.10110 · 2.79 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from