Reproductive health needs and care seeking behaviour of pavement dwellers of Calcutta.
ABSTRACT An unabated growth of street dwellers in the city of Calcutta is reported to be due to twin reasons like, migration of rural poor people as well as uncontrolled fertility among these poor settlers of the city. A community-based study on reproductive health, fertility and related care seeking behaviour was studied among a sample of women of child bearing age living on streets of Calcutta. Besides, the quite common conditions like leucorrhoea (28.5%), menstrual irregularities (12.3%), infertility (2.5%) and STDs (1.3%) were also reported. But most of these illnesses (three-fourth) were uncared for, and the remaining one-fourth sought treatment from govemment institutions, private agencies or even from untrained practitioners (quacks). The reproductive behaviour of street dwelling women was characterised by early marriage, teenage pregnancies, and scarce use of contraceptives (32%) as well as frequent abortions (2.8%). Very few pregnant women received adequate antenatal care (3.8%). Coverage of tetanus toxoid immunisation (68.5%) and proper iron and folic acid supplementation (16.7%) were also poor. Whereas, antenatal care was received mostly from government health institutions (71%), home delivery (ie, on street) was a common practice and conducted mostly by untrained birth attendants (51.8%).
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ABSTRACT: A hospital-based retrospective study on a sample of 228 nurses involved in patient care, in two medical college hospitals of West Bengal, showed that 61.4% of them sustained at least one Needle Stick Injury (NSI) in last 12 months. The risk of such injuries per 1000 nurses per year was found to be 3,280. Out of the most recent injuries among 140 nurses, 92.9% remained unreported to appropriate authorities; in 52.9% events hand gloves were worn by the nurses; only 5% of those nurses received hepatitis B vaccine, 2.1% hepatitis B immunoglobulin and none of them received post exposure prophylaxis for HIV.Indian journal of public health 52(3):150-2.
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ABSTRACT: The study objective was to ascertain the extent to which the need for primary health care services among street-dwellers is being met through existing facilities. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dhaka city over a 12-month period from June 2007 to May 2008. The study population included ever-married females and males aged 15-49 years. Data for the study were collected through a community survey and exit interviews. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. Seventy-two per cent of female and 48% of male street-dwellers interviewed were sick at the time of data collection. Twenty-one per cent of deliveries were conducted on the street. Eighty-nine per cent of the street-dwellers reported that their children aged less than 5 years had more than one symptom associated with acute respiratory infection during the last 2 weeks. Thirty-seven per cent of the females and 34% of the males interviewed reported that their accompanied children had diarrhoea. A few street-dwellers sought services for their health problems, and most went to the nearest pharmacy and to mobile clinics run by a non-governmental organization at night. Eighty-eight per cent of the female and 88% of the male street-dwellers used open space for their defecation. The street-dwellers are extremely vulnerable in terms of their health needs and health-care-seeking behaviours. There is no health service delivery mechanism targeting this marginalized group of people. Although the health, nutrition and population sector programme of Bangladesh designed programmes to ensure equitable essential services to all, this marginalized group of people was not targeted. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and private sectors should, thus, should focus future programmes to meet the needs of this extremely vulnerable group. Mobile and static clinics at night for street-dwellers may be potential programmes. Action research to assess the effectiveness of programmes is essential before large-scale implementation.Health Policy and Planning 07/2009; 24(5):385-94. DOI:10.1093/heapol/czp022 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is a common problem in India for women in the reproductive age group to suffer from reproductive illnesses and not seek care. This paper is an attempt to assess untreated reproductive morbidities and to study factors affecting treatment-seeking behavior among ever married women of urban slums. We selected 1,046 women of the reproductive age group (15-49 years) using two-stage cluster sampling for a community-based, cross-sectional study. From this sample, 593 responses reporting reproductive morbidity were analyzed for treatment-seeking behavior and its correlates. Information was collected on demographics, socioeconomic status, self-reported reproductive morbidity, and treatment-seeking patterns, along with reasons for not utilizing available health services, all using a pretested, structured interview schedule. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done in SPSS 15.0. In our sample, 57% of women had at least one reproductive morbidity; of these, only one third sought health care. Women belonging to the Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes caste group (OR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.44-10.64), at a distance of more than 2 km from a health facility (OR = 2.67, 95% CI 1.28-5.58), and whose duration of illness was more than 1 year (OR = 14.44, 95% CI 3.66-56.87) accessed fewer reproductive health services compared to their counterparts. The present study found that a lower sense of need, the cost of care, and societal barriers were the reasons for not seeking care. Providers' poor attitudes, poor quality of services, and long waiting times were found to be the reasons for not utilizing health facilities. The determinants for accessing reproductive health care were resources available at the household level, social factors, the availability of services, and behaviors related to health. Government facilities remained underutilized.Journal of Urban Health 03/2010; 87(2):254-63. DOI:10.1007/s11524-009-9423-y · 1.94 Impact Factor