Sulfated polysaccharides, but not cellulose, increase colonic mucus in rats with loperamide-induced constipation.
ABSTRACT Colonic mucus is decreased in a rat model of spastic constipation, and some types of water-insoluble dietary fiber increase colonic mucus when consumed by rats for several weeks. However, little is known about the effect of water-soluble dietary fiber on the colonic mucus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various types of water-soluble dietary fiber on colonic mucus in a rat model of spastic constipation. Oral administration of 1.5 mg/day of carrageenan and chondroitin sulfate increased the fecal excretion, epithelial mucin production, thickness of the mucous layer, and amount of luminal mucus in loperamide-administered rats. Sodium alginate, 5 mg/day, thickened the mucus layer at the fecal surface. Cellulose, 5 mg/day, increased the fecal excretion but not the colonic mucus. Carrageenan, chondroitin sulfate, and sodium alginate, but not cellulose, increased colonic mucus in the rat model of spastic constipation.
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ABSTRACT: Publications and patents relative to newly observed functions of beta-(1,3)-D-glucans have notably increased in the last few years with the exploitation of their biological activities. The term beta-(1,3)-D-glucans includes a very large number of polysaccharides from bacterial, fungal and vegetable sources. Their structures have a common backbone of beta-(1,3) linked glucopyranosyl residues but the polysaccharidic chain can be beta-(1,6) branched with glucose or integrate some beta-(1,4) linked glucopyranosyl residues in the main chain. Except for the curdlan, a bacterial linear beta-(1,3)-D-glucans, and for the scleroglucan produced by Sclerotium rolfsii, the main drawback limiting the development of these polysaccharides is the lack of efficient processes for their extraction and purification and their cost. However new applications in agronomy, foods, cosmetic and therapeutic could in a next future accentuate the effort of research for their development. So this review focuses on these beta-(1,3)-D-glucans with the objective to detail the strategies employed for their extraction and the relation structure-functions identified when they induce biological activities.Recent patents on biotechnology. 02/2007; 1(1):59-73.
Article: Red algal cellular biomass lowers circulating cholesterol concentrations in Syrian golden hamsters consuming hypercholesterolaemic diets.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preliminary evidence suggests that consumption of Porphyridium cruentum (PC) biomass results in hypocholesterolaemic effects; however, mechanisms responsible have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PC biomass lowers circulating cholesterol concentrations, dose dependently, in hamsters fed hypercholesterolaemic diets for 28 d and determine whether cholesterol biosynthesis is affected. Biomass added to diets at 2.5, 5 and 10% resulted in 14, 38 and 53% reductions (P < 0.001) in total plasma cholesterol, respectively, compared with a control diet. Similarly, non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the 5 and 10% PC groups were reduced (P < 0.001) 28 and 45%, respectively, v. controls. These effects were unrelated to cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR), as this did not differ between either treatment or control animals. PC consumption had no effect on food intake, plasma glucose concentrations or energy expenditure, but percentage of body fat was lower (P < 0.001) in the 5 and 10% PC groups compared with controls. These data show that PC reduces total plasma cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol when incorporated into the diet at levels as low as 2.5%. The mechanism of action for this reduction may be related to increased excretion since food intakes and cholesterol FSR were not reduced in the animals receiving the PC. In conclusion, the use of PC biomass reduces circulating cholesterol, dose dependently, in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters but not via reductions in cholesterol FSR. There is potential for the use of this biomass as a functional ingredient to aid in the management of blood cholesterol concentrations.The British journal of nutrition 07/2009; 102(6):842-7. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The colonic mucus barrier is the first line of defence that the underlying mucosa has against the wide range of potentially damaging agents of microbial, endogenous, and dietary origin that occur within the colonic lumen. The functional component of mucus is the secreted, polymeric glycoprotein mucin. The mucus barrier can either act as an energy source or a support medium for growth to the intestinal microflora. The mucus barrier appears to effectively partition the vast number of microbial cells from the underlying epithelium. The normal functionality and biochemistry of this mucus barrier appears to be lost in diseases of the colorectal mucosa. Germ-free animal studies have highlighted the necessity of the presence of the colonic microflora to drive the maturation of the colonic mucosa and normal mucus production. A number of by-products of the microflora have been suggested to be key luminal drivers of colonic mucus secretion.International journal of inflammation. 01/2010; 2010:321426.