A molecular approach to dominance in hypophosphatasia.
ABSTRACT Hypophosphatasia is an inherited disorder characterized by defective bone mineralization and a deficiency of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) activity. The disease is highly variable in its clinical expression, because of various mutations in the TNSALP gene. In approximately 14% of the patients tested in our laboratory, only one TNSALP gene mutation was found, despite exhaustive sequencing of the gene, suggesting that missing mutations are harbored in intron or regulatory sequences or that the disease is dominantly transmitted. The distinction between these two situations is of importance, especially in terms of genetic counseling, but dominance is sometimes difficult to conclusively determine by using familial analysis since expression of the disease may be highly variable, with parents of even severely affected children showing no or extremely mild symptoms of the disease. We report here the study of eight point mutations (G46 V, A99T, S164L, R167 W, R206 W, G232 V, N461I, I473F) found in patients with no other detectable mutation. Three of these mutations, G46 V, S164L, and I473F, have not previously been described. Pedigree and/or serum alkaline phosphatase data suggested possible dominant transmission in families with A99T, R167 W, and G232 V. By means of site-directed mutagenesis, transfections in COS-1 cells, and three-dimensional (3D) modeling, we evaluated the possible dominant effect of these eight mutations. The results showed that four of these mutations (G46 V, A99T, R167 W, and N461I) exhibited a negative dominant effect by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of the heterodimer, whereas the four others did not show such inhibition. Strong inhibition resulted in severe hypophosphatasia, whereas partial inhibition resulted in milder forms of the disease. Analysis of the 3D model of the enzyme showed that mutations exhibiting a dominant effect were clustered in two regions, viz., the active site and an area probably interacting with a region having a particular biological function such as dimerization, tetramerization, or membrane anchoring.
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Article: Hypophosphatasia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatasia is a rare inherited disorder characterized by defective bone and teeth mineralization, and deficiency of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase activity. The prevalence of severe forms of the disease has been estimated at 1/100 000. The symptoms are highly variable in their clinical expression, which ranges from stillbirth without mineralized bone to early loss of teeth without bone symptoms. Depending on the age at diagnosis, six clinical forms are currently recognized: perinatal (lethal), perinatal benign, infantile, childhood, adult and odontohypophosphatasia. In the lethal perinatal form, the patients show markedly impaired mineralization in utero. In the prenatal benign form these symptoms are spontaneously improved. Clinical symptoms of the infantile form are respiratory complications, premature craniosynostosis, widespread demineralization and rachitic changes in the metaphyses. The childhood form is characterized by skeletal deformities, short stature, and waddling gait, and the adult form by stress fractures, thigh pain, chondrocalcinosis and marked osteoarthropathy. Odontohypophosphatasia is characterized by premature exfoliation of fully rooted primary teeth and/or severe dental caries, often not associated with abnormalities of the skeletal system. The disease is due to mutations in the liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL; OMIM# 171760) encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). The diagnosis is based on laboratory assays and DNA sequencing of the ALPL gene. Serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity is markedly reduced in hypophosphatasia, while urinary phosphoethanolamine (PEA) is increased. By using sequencing, approximately 95% of mutations are detected in severe (perinatal and infantile) hypophosphatasia. Genetic counseling of the disease is complicated by the variable inheritance pattern (autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive), the existence of the uncommon prenatal benign form, and by incomplete penetrance of the trait. Prenatal assessment of severe hypophosphatasia by mutation analysis of chorionic villus DNA is possible. There is no curative treatment for hypophosphatasia, but symptomatic treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or teriparatide have been shown to be of benefit. Enzyme replacement therapy will be certainly the most promising challenge of the next few years.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2007; 2:40. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a heterogeneous rare inborn error of bone and mineral metabolism caused by mutations in the ALPL gene encoding the isoenzyme, tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). These mutations result in a decreased level of TNAP activity and increased levels of its substrates, including inorganic pyrophosphate, pyridoxal-5′-phosphate and phosphoethanolamine. Clinical presentations are highly variable, ranging from stillbirth and absence of mineralization in severe disease to mild dental problems or osteopenia in adulthood. Further clinical symptoms include defective bone mineralization with bone deformities, recurrent fractures, chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis, craniosynostosis, neonatal seizures, nephrocalcinosis, muscular hypotonia, failure to thrive and dental abnormalities with premature exfoliation of teeth and caries. Prognosis is very poor in severe perinatal forms with most patients dying from pulmonary complications of their skeletal disease but patients with mild phenotypes (adult form or Odonto-HPP) usually do not have a limitation in their life expectancy. Although TNAP is a ubiquitous enzyme, mostly known for its crucial role during mineralization of bone and teeth, its exact biological role in different human organs is still unclear, and the pathophysiology of symptoms due to TNAP deficiency in HPP are not understood in detail. Since inflammation and tissue destruction of the musculoskeletal system may occur in HPP, TNAP may also play an important role in controlling inflammatory processes. Recent investigations provide evidence that TNAP is also essentially involved in the development of the central nervous system and might contribute to multiple functions of the human brain. HPP can be diagnosed on clinical, biochemical and radiological criteria, and genetic testing confirms the diagnosis and is useful for genetic counseling. Since clinical symptoms are highly variable, patients should be followed up by a multidisciplinary team having experience in HPP treatment. Up to now, no curative treatment of HPP is available. Therefore, symptomatic treatment in particular with regard to pain, seizures and other metabolic phenomena is most important. However, recently, enzyme replacement therapy with a bone-targeted recombinant human TNAP molecule has been reported to improve bone mineralization, respiratory function and physical activity in severely affected infants with HPP, and further clinical trials are ongoing. Hopefully, this and other new therapeutic strategies may improve the prognosis and quality of life of patients with HPP and may contribute to our understanding of bone metabolism in general.Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism 06/2013; 11(2).
Article: Genetics of Hypophosphatasia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) results from mutations in the ALPL gene, mostly missense mutations. The gene is subject to a very high allelic heterogeneity, and some of these mutations have a dominant negative effect, two features that explain the most part of the clinical heterogeneity. Severe forms of the disease (perinatal and infantile) are inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. In the milder forms, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant inheritance coexist. Experimental data show that there is a good correlation between the severity of the disease and in vitro alkaline phosphatase activity of the mutant protein. As a consequence of the existence of dominant mutations, moderate forms may be recessively or dominantly inherited and are expected more frequent than severe forms. The incidence of severe forms, inherited as a recessive trait, has been estimated at 1/300,000 in Europe. Genetic counseling is difficult in families where the mode of inheritance is unclear, or in prenatal context because of the prenatal benign form that may mimic severe perinatal HPP. During the ten last years, the mechanism of mineralization has been greatly deciphered, pointing out others gene that could modulate the HPP phenotype and explain particular cases where the phenotype does not correlate with the phenotype.Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism 06/2013; 11(2).