The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity.
ABSTRACT Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where the gene encoding adiponectin is located. Here we show that decreased expression of adiponectin correlates with insulin resistance in mouse models of altered insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin decreases insulin resistance by decreasing triglyceride content in muscle and liver in obese mice. This effect results from increased expression of molecules involved in both fatty-acid combustion and energy dissipation in muscle. Moreover, insulin resistance in lipoatrophic mice was completely reversed by the combination of physiological doses of adiponectin and leptin, but only partially by either adiponectin or leptin alone. We conclude that decreased adiponectin is implicated in the development of insulin resistance in mouse models of both obesity and lipoatrophy. These data also indicate that the replenishment of adiponectin might provide a novel treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Since the initial observation that a calorie-restricted (CR) diet can extend rodent lifespan, many genetic and pharmaceutical interventions that also extend lifespan in mammals have been discovered. The mechanism by which CR and these other interventions extend lifespan is the subject of significant debate and research. One proposed mechanism is that CR promotes longevity by increasing insulin sensitivity, but recent findings that dissociate longevity and insulin sensitivity cast doubt on this hypothesis. These findings can be reconciled if longevity is promoted not via increased insulin sensitivity, but instead via decreased PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway signaling. This review presents a unifying hypothesis that explains the lifespan-extending effects of a variety of genetic mutations and pharmaceutical interventions and points towards new molecular pathways which may also be leveraged to promote healthy aging.SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:735.
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ABSTRACT: Circulating adipokines are associated with physiological and pathophysiological processes in both obesity and pregnancy. Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of pregnancy complications and the majority of research uses body mass index (BMI) to assess fatness. Specific fat compartments are associated with obesity-induced health risks yet it is not known how abdominal fat mass in pregnancy is related to circulating adipokines. Plasma leptin, resistin, visfatin, and adiponectin were measured by immunoassay in healthy pregnant women of normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9; n = 17) and overweight/obese pregnant women (BMI 25.0–40.0, n = 21) in the third trimester. Total body fat and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat mass were measured at 1–3 weeks postpartum. Overweight/obese women had greater total body fat (t = −6.210, P < 0.001) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (t = –5.072, P < 0.001) than normal-weight women while there was no difference in abdominal visceral fat. Overweight/obese women had higher leptin (66.3 ± 34.2 vs. 35.7 ± 19.3 ng/mL, P < 0.001) compared with normal-weight women. Leptin was associated with total body fat (r = 0.782, P < 0.001) and resistin was associated with abdominal visceral fat (r = 0.452, P = 0.045). No significant correlations were observed between adiponectin or visfatin and any measure of body composition. In pregnant women, resistin has the potential to be a circulating biomarker for visceral fat, an ectopic fat compartment. These observational data may provide insight for the pathophysiological roles of adipokines and the impact of visceral fat in pregnant women.Adipocyte. 10/2014;
Article: Avbrutt karnevalBooks Abroad. 01/1962; 36(3):347.