Panic symptoms during trauma and acute stress disorder
ABSTRACT This study investigated the role of panic symptoms that occur during trauma and subsequent acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma (N=51) survivors with either acute stress disorder (ASD), subclinical ASD, or no acute stress disorder (non-ASD) were administered the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). Participants also completed the Physical Reactions Scale to index panic symptoms that occurred during their trauma. Overall, 53% of participants reported panic attacks during their trauma. ASD and subclinical ASD participants reported more peritraumatic panic symptoms, and higher ASI scores, than non-ASD participants. These findings are consistent with the notion that peritraumatic panic may be related to subsequent posttraumatic stress, and suggest that modification of maladaptive beliefs about physical sensations should be addressed in posttraumatic therapy.
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- "Symptoms of panic are for instance palpitations, shaking, sweating, shortness of breath, nausea, dizziness, and fear of dying or losing control (APA, 1994). It has been suggested that peritraumatic panic may be associated with the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms as it may condition trauma related cues to subsequent anxiety (Bryant & Panasetis, 2001). Indeed, peritraumatic panic has been found to be associated with the development of both ASD and PTSD (Bryant & Panasetis, 2001; Bryant et al., 2011; Nixon & Bryant, 2003; Rocha-Rego et al., 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have identified risk factors for acute and long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms following traumatic exposure. However, little is known about whether there are common pathways to the development of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests that a common path to ASD and PTSD may lie in peritraumatic responses and cognitions. The results of structural equation modeling in a national sample of Danish bank robbery victims (N = 450) show that peritraumatic panic, anxiety sensitivity, and negative cognitions about self were significant common risk factors for both ASD severity and PTSD severity when controlled for the effect of the other risk factors. The strongest common risk factor was negative cognitions about self. Future research should focus on replicating these results as they point to possible areas of preventive and treatment actions against the development of traumatic stress symptoms.Journal of Anxiety Disorders 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.09.019 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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- "The purpose of forensic services is to optimally perform the forensic examination within the time limits for evidence collection. The psychological services aim at reducing initial distress by means of ''watchful waiting'' (National Institute for Clinical Excellence [NICE], 2005) as the intensity of acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome (Alisic, Jongmans, Van Wesel, & Kleber, 2011; Bryant & Panasetis, 2001). Watchful waiting is the recommended approach after a traumatic event as set out by the NICE guidelines, implying close monitoring of the patient without active treatment. "
ABSTRACT: Background Prior research endorsed the establishment of sexual assault centres in the Netherlands because of the potential benefit for victims’ mental recovery. In 2012, the first Dutch sexual assault centre was founded at the University Medical Center Utrecht. The aim of the centre is to provide 24/7 coordinated and integrated services (i.e., medical, forensic, and psychological) in one location. Objective The purpose of the present study was to describe demographic, background, and assault characteristics of victims seen at the centre within one week post-assault, and their use of post-assault services in order to improve current services. Method From January 2012 to September 2013, prospective data of 108 patients were collected. To describe the population included, frequency counts and proportions were generated for categorical variables. Results The mean age was 21.3 years (SD=9.8). Most victims were female (91.7%). A large proportion of victims reported background characteristics known to increase the risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and revictimisation such as prior sexual abuse (32.4%), pre-existing use of mental health services (45.4%), and not living with both biological parents (61.7%). Most patients (88.9%) consulted the centre within 72 hours post-assault. The uptake of services was high: 82.4% received emergency medical care, 61.7% underwent a forensic–medical exam, 34% reported to the police, and 82.4% utilised psychological services. Conclusion To prevent revictimisation and PTSD, current psychological services could be improved with immediate trauma-focused treatments. Current forensic services may be improved with the use of standard top to toe forensic–medical examinations for both children and adults.European Journal of Psychotraumatology 06/2014; 5. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v5.23645 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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- "There has been a growing literature considering the role of anxiety sensitivity in PTSD. Individuals with PTSD reported greater scores on the measures of anxiety sensitivity than those without PTSD   . Research has evidenced for the importance of anxiety sensitivity in predicting the development and maintenance of PTSD after a range of traumatic events   . "
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety-related disorders, and dissociative symptomotology, and to assess the risk factors for development of psychopathology among children and adolescents after the 2011 Van earthquake in Turkey. METHODS: The screening was conducted among 738 participants at 6months post-earthquake using the CPTSD-Reaction Index, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, Child Depression Inventory, Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children, and Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. RESULTS: Less than half (40.69% of) of the participants reported severe levels of PTSD symptoms, 53.04% were at greater risk for developing an anxiety-related disorder, 37.70% met the criteria for clinical depression, and 36.73% revealed pathological levels of dissociative symptomotology. State-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity were significant antecedents of psychopathology. CONCLUSION: We concluded that anxiety sensitivity is a significant risk factor in various types of psychopathology, but metacognitions seem to have a limited utility in accounting for poor psychological outcomes in young survivors of earthquake.Comprehensive psychiatry 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.04.003 · 2.26 Impact Factor