Panic symptoms during trauma and acute stress disorder
ABSTRACT This study investigated the role of panic symptoms that occur during trauma and subsequent acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma (N=51) survivors with either acute stress disorder (ASD), subclinical ASD, or no acute stress disorder (non-ASD) were administered the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). Participants also completed the Physical Reactions Scale to index panic symptoms that occurred during their trauma. Overall, 53% of participants reported panic attacks during their trauma. ASD and subclinical ASD participants reported more peritraumatic panic symptoms, and higher ASI scores, than non-ASD participants. These findings are consistent with the notion that peritraumatic panic may be related to subsequent posttraumatic stress, and suggest that modification of maladaptive beliefs about physical sensations should be addressed in posttraumatic therapy.
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- "The purpose of forensic services is to optimally perform the forensic examination within the time limits for evidence collection. The psychological services aim at reducing initial distress by means of ''watchful waiting'' (National Institute for Clinical Excellence [NICE], 2005) as the intensity of acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome (Alisic, Jongmans, Van Wesel, & Kleber, 2011; Bryant & Panasetis, 2001). Watchful waiting is the recommended approach after a traumatic event as set out by the NICE guidelines, implying close monitoring of the patient without active treatment. "
ABSTRACT: Background Prior research endorsed the establishment of sexual assault centres in the Netherlands because of the potential benefit for victims’ mental recovery. In 2012, the first Dutch sexual assault centre was founded at the University Medical Center Utrecht. The aim of the centre is to provide 24/7 coordinated and integrated services (i.e., medical, forensic, and psychological) in one location. Objective The purpose of the present study was to describe demographic, background, and assault characteristics of victims seen at the centre within one week post-assault, and their use of post-assault services in order to improve current services. Method From January 2012 to September 2013, prospective data of 108 patients were collected. To describe the population included, frequency counts and proportions were generated for categorical variables. Results The mean age was 21.3 years (SD=9.8). Most victims were female (91.7%). A large proportion of victims reported background characteristics known to increase the risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and revictimisation such as prior sexual abuse (32.4%), pre-existing use of mental health services (45.4%), and not living with both biological parents (61.7%). Most patients (88.9%) consulted the centre within 72 hours post-assault. The uptake of services was high: 82.4% received emergency medical care, 61.7% underwent a forensic–medical exam, 34% reported to the police, and 82.4% utilised psychological services. Conclusion To prevent revictimisation and PTSD, current psychological services could be improved with immediate trauma-focused treatments. Current forensic services may be improved with the use of standard top to toe forensic–medical examinations for both children and adults.European Journal of Psychotraumatology 06/2014; 5. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v5.23645 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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- "There has been a growing literature considering the role of anxiety sensitivity in PTSD. Individuals with PTSD reported greater scores on the measures of anxiety sensitivity than those without PTSD   . Research has evidenced for the importance of anxiety sensitivity in predicting the development and maintenance of PTSD after a range of traumatic events   . "
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety-related disorders, and dissociative symptomotology, and to assess the risk factors for development of psychopathology among children and adolescents after the 2011 Van earthquake in Turkey. METHODS: The screening was conducted among 738 participants at 6months post-earthquake using the CPTSD-Reaction Index, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, Child Depression Inventory, Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children, and Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. RESULTS: Less than half (40.69% of) of the participants reported severe levels of PTSD symptoms, 53.04% were at greater risk for developing an anxiety-related disorder, 37.70% met the criteria for clinical depression, and 36.73% revealed pathological levels of dissociative symptomotology. State-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity were significant antecedents of psychopathology. CONCLUSION: We concluded that anxiety sensitivity is a significant risk factor in various types of psychopathology, but metacognitions seem to have a limited utility in accounting for poor psychological outcomes in young survivors of earthquake.Comprehensive psychiatry 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.04.003 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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- "). Importantly, this pattern extends to exaggerating aversive outcomes from somatic events, as well as physical harm (Smith & Bryant, 2000). This pattern is consistent with evidence that people with ASD have higher anxiety sensitivity scores than those without ASD (Bryant & Panasetis, 2001), and that anxiety sensitivity scores are strongly predictive of posttraumatic panic (Nixon & Bryant, 2003). Taken together, these findings suggest that the fear conditioning that occurs during the traumatic event encompasses the aversive outcomes of somatic events, and in this sense the panic attacks in PTSD participants share the fear of somatic catastrophes that are observed in PD panic attacks. "
ABSTRACT: Although there is increasing evidence that panic attacks are common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known if posttraumatic panic is comparable to panic attacks observed in panic disorder (PD). This study examined the cognitive responses to panic attacks in participants with PD and PTSD. Participants with PD (n=22) and PTSD (n=18) were assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and subsequently administered the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and a measure of fears related to trauma memories. Although participants did not differ in terms of catastrophic appraisals about somatic sensations, PTSD participants were more likely to experience fears about trauma memories and being harmed by trauma again during their panic attacks than PD participants. These findings suggest that although PTSD participants fear somatic outcomes during panic attacks, their panic attacks are distinguished by a marked fear of trauma memories.European Journal of Psychotraumatology 11/2012; 3. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.19084 · 2.40 Impact Factor