Panic symptoms during trauma and acute stress disorder.
ABSTRACT This study investigated the role of panic symptoms that occur during trauma and subsequent acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma (N=51) survivors with either acute stress disorder (ASD), subclinical ASD, or no acute stress disorder (non-ASD) were administered the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). Participants also completed the Physical Reactions Scale to index panic symptoms that occurred during their trauma. Overall, 53% of participants reported panic attacks during their trauma. ASD and subclinical ASD participants reported more peritraumatic panic symptoms, and higher ASI scores, than non-ASD participants. These findings are consistent with the notion that peritraumatic panic may be related to subsequent posttraumatic stress, and suggest that modification of maladaptive beliefs about physical sensations should be addressed in posttraumatic therapy.
- SourceAvailable from: Sara Freedman[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Physiological arousal during traumatic events may trigger the neurobiological processes that lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study prospectively examined the relationship between heart rate and blood pressure recorded immediately following a traumatic event and the subsequent development of PTSD. Eighty-six trauma survivors who presented at the emergency department of a general hospital were followed up for 4 months. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded on arrival at the emergency department. Heart rate, anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months later. The clinician-administered PTSD scale defined PTSD status at 4 months. twenty subjects (23%) met PTSD diagnostic criteria at the 4-month assessment (PTSD group), and 66 (77%) did not (non-PTSD group). Subjects who developed PTSD had higher heart rates at the emergency department (95.5+/-13.9 vs 83.3+/-10.9 beats per minute, t=4.4, P<.001) and 1 week later (77.8+/-11.9 vs 72.0+/-9.5 beats per minute, t=2.25, P<.03), but not after 1 and 4 months. The groups did not differ in initial blood pressure measurement. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for heart rate showed a significant group effect (P<.02), time effect (P<.001), and group x time interaction (P<.001). The time effect and group x time interaction remained significant when adjusted for sex, age, trauma severity, immediate response, and dissociation during the traumatic event. Elevated heart rate shortly after trauma is associated with the later development of PTSD.Archives of General Psychiatry 06/1998; 55(6):553-9. · 13.77 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinical, field, and experimental studies of response to potentially stressful life events give concordant findings: there is a general human tendency to undergo episodes of intrusive thinking and periods of avoidance. A scale of current subjective distress, related to a specific event, was based on a list of items composed of commonly reported experiences of intrusion and avoidance. Responses of 66 persons admitted to an outpatient clinic for the treatment of stress response syndromes indicated that the scale had a useful degree of significance and homogeneity. Empirical clusters supported the concept of subscores for intrusions and avoidance responses.Psychosomatic Medicine 06/1979; 41(3):209-18. · 4.08 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Motor vehicle accident survivors (n = 92) were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD) within 1 month of the trauma and reassessed (n = 71) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months posttrauma. ASD was diagnosed in 13% of participants, and a further 21% had subclinical levels of ASD. At follow-up, 78% of ASD participants and 60% of subclinical ASD participants met criteria for PTSD. The strong predictive power of acute numbing, depersonalization, a sense of relieving the trauma, and motor restlessness, in contrast to the low to moderate predictive power of other symptoms, indicates that only a subset of ASD symptoms is strongly related to the development of chronic PTSD. Although these findings support the use of the ASD diagnosis, they suggest that the dissociative and arousal clusters may require revision.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 07/1998; 66(3):507-12. · 4.85 Impact Factor