Rb targets histone H3 methylation and HP1 to promoters.

Wellcome/CRC Institute and Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK.
Nature (Impact Factor: 38.6). 09/2001; 412(6846):561-5. DOI: 10.1038/35087620
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In eukaryotic cells the histone methylase SUV39H1 and the methyl-lysine binding protein HP1 functionally interact to repress transcription at heterochromatic sites. Lysine 9 of histone H3 is methylated by SUV39H1 (ref. 2), creating a binding site for the chromo domain of HP1 (refs 3, 4). Here we show that SUV39H1 and HP1 are both involved in the repressive functions of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Rb associates with SUV39H1 and HP1 in vivo by means of its pocket domain. SUV39H1 cooperates with Rb to repress the cyclin E promoter, and in fibroblasts that are disrupted for SUV39, the activity of the cyclin E and cyclin A2 genes are specifically elevated. Chromatin immunoprecipitations show that Rb is necessary to direct methylation of histone H3, and is necessary for binding of HP1 to the cyclin E promoter. These results indicate that the SUV39H1-HP1 complex is not only involved in heterochromatic silencing but also has a role in repression of euchromatic genes by Rb and perhaps other co-repressor proteins.

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    ABSTRACT: Although several studies have suggested that the functions of heterochromatin regulators may be regulated by post-translational modifications during cell cycle progression, regulation of the histone methyltransferase Suv39H1 is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate a direct link between Suv39H1 phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. We show that CDK2 phosphorylates Suv39H1 at Ser391 and these phosphorylation levels oscillate during the cell cycle, peaking at S phase and maintained during S-G2-M phase. The CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of Suv39H1 at Ser391 results in preferential dissociation from chromatin. Furthermore, phosphorylation-mediated dissociation of Suv39H1 from chromatin causes an enhanced occupancy of JMJD2A histone demethylase on heterochromatin and alterations in inactive histone marks. Overexpression of phospho-mimic Suv39H1 induces early replication of heterochromatin, suggesting the importance of Suv39H1 phosphorylation in the replication of heterochromatin. Moreover, overexpression of phospho-defective Suv39H1 caused altered replication timing of heterochromatin and increases sensitivity to replication stress. Collectively, our data suggest that phosphorylation-mediated modulation of Suv39H1-chromatin association may be an initial step in heterochromatin replication.
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    ABSTRACT: Once neurons enter the post-mitotic G0 phase during central nervous system (CNS) development, they lose their proliferative potential. When neurons re-enter the cell cycle during pathological situations such as neurodegeneration, they undergo cell death after S phase progression. Thus, the regulatory networks that drive cell proliferation and maintain neuronal differentiation are highly coordinated. In this review, the coordination of cell cycle control and neuronal differentiation during development are discussed, focusing on regulation by the Rb family of tumor suppressors (including p107 and p130), and the Cip/Kip family of cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors. Based on recent findings suggesting roles for these families in regulating neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, I propose that the Rb family is essential for daughter cells of neuronal progenitors to enter the post-mitotic G0 phase without affecting the initiation of neuronal differentiation in most cases, while the Cip/Kip family regulates the timing of neuronal progenitor cell cycle exit and the initiation of neuronal differentiation at least in the progenitor cells of the cerebral cortex and the retina. Rb's lack of involvement in regulating the initiation of neuronal differentiation may explain why Rb family-deficient retinoblastomas characteristically exhibit neuronal features.
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular adaptation to environmental changes and stress relies on a wide range of regulatory mechanisms that are tightly controlled at several levels, including transcription. Chromatin structure and chromatin binding proteins are important factors contributing to the transcriptional response to stress. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent specific chromatin factors influence the response to distinct forms of stress in a developmental context. One of the best characterized stress response pathways is the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated by accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatin protein like-2 (HPL-2), the homolog of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), down-regulates the UPR in the intestine. Inactivation of HPL-2 results in an enhanced resistance to ER stress dependent on the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1)/inositol requiring enzyme 1 branch of the UPR and the closely related process of autophagy. Increased resistance to ER stress in animals lacking HPL-2 is associated with increased basal levels of XBP-1 activation and ER chaperone expression under physiological conditions, which may in turn activate an adaptive response known as ER hormesis. HPL-2 expression in intestinal cells is sufficient to rescue stress resistance, whereas expression in neuronal cells negatively influenced the ER stress response through a cell-nonautonomous mechanism. We further show that the retinoblastoma protein homolog LIN-35 and the LIN-13 zinc finger protein act in the same pathway as HPL-2 to limit the ER stress response. Altogether, our results point to multiple functions for HP1 in different cell types to maintain ER homeostasis.
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