Flexible use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery and validation.
ABSTRACT A method for identifying and validating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high-density oligonucleotide arrays without the need for locus-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR) is described in this report. Genomic DNAs were divided into subsets with complexity of ~10 Mb by restriction enzyme digestion and gel-based fragment size resolution, ligated to a common adaptor, and amplified with one primer in a single PCR reaction. As a demonstration of this approach, a total of 124 SNPs were located in 190 kb of genomic sequences distributed across the entire human genome by hybridizing to high-density variant detection arrays (VDA). A set of independent validation experiments was conducted for these SNPs employing bead-based affinity selection followed by hybridization of the affinity-selected SNP-containing fragments to the same VDA that was used to identify the SNPs. A total of 98.7% (74/75) of these SNPs were confirmed using both DNA dideoxynucleotide sequencing and the VDA methodologies. With flexible sample preparation, high-density oligonucleotide arrays can be tailored for even larger scale genome-wide SNP discovery as well as validation.
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ABSTRACT: The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have chromosomal instability, in which the tumor genome is characterized by gross chromosomal aberrations such as gains in 20q, 13q, 8q, and 7, and losses in 4, 8p, 18q, and 17p. These somatic copy number changes (gains, losses, and somatic uniparental disomies) are crucial to CRC progression as they drive genes toward cancer-promoting (oncogenic or tumor suppressive) states. Numerous studies have shown that the loss of 18q or 8p is associated with poorer clinical outcome in CRCs. Either chromosomal arm may contain a tumor suppressor gene (or genes), whose deactivation by copy loss (loss of wild-type allele, decreased expression) can be crucial to the later stages of cancer progression. Our own integrated genomic analysis (single nucleotide polymorphism array, expression array) of more than 200 CRC tumor and normal samples indicates that the overall down-regulation of genes within the 8p or 18q arm is associated with lower survival rate. Among the often down-regulated, poor prognosis-associated 8p genes is MTUS1, whose gene product (a mitotic spindle-associated protein) was recently demonstrated to have a tumor suppressive property. Within 18q is ATP5A1, which codes for the catalytic a component of mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase. Like SMAD4 (also in 18q), the decreased expression of ATP5A1 appears to be a marker of unfavorable clinical outcome in CRCs.The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 09/2010; 12(5):552-61. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mineralogical studies of coatings on quartz grains and bulk sediments from an aquifer on Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA were carried out using a variety of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Previous studies demonstrated that coatings on quartz grains control the adsorption properties of these sediments. Samples for TEM characterization were made by a gentle mechanical grinding method and focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The former method can make abundant electron-transparent coating assemblages for comprehensive and quantitative X-ray analysis and the latter technique protects the coating texture from being destroyed. Characterization of the samples from both a pristine area and an area heavily impacted by wastewater discharge shows similar coating textures and chemical compositions. Major constituents of the coating include Al-substituted goethite and illite/chlorite clays. Goethite is aggregated into well-crystallized domains through oriented attachment resulting in increased porosity. Illite/chlorite clays with various chemical compositions were observed to be mixed with goethite aggregates and aligned sub-parallel to the associated quartz surface. The uniform spatial distribution of wastewater-derived phosphorus throughout the coating from the wastewater-contaminated site suggests that all of the coating constituents, including those adjacent to the quartz surface, are accessible to groundwater solutes. Both TEM characterization and chemical extraction results indicate there is a significantly greater amount of amorphous iron oxide in samples from wastewater discharge area compared to those from the pristine region, which might reflect the impact of redox cycling of iron under the wastewater-discharge area. Coating compositions are consistent with the moderate metal and oxy-metalloid adsorption capacities, low but significant cation exchange capacities, and control of iron(III) solubility by goethite observed in reactive transport experimental and modeling studies conducted at the site.Journal of contaminant hydrology 02/2011; 124(1-4):57-67. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Validation of genetic associations is understood to be a cornerstone for the scientific credibility of the results. To approach this topic, the general concept of genetic association studies is introduced briefly, followed by how the term 'validation' is used in the context of genetic association studies. As a central issue, reasons for the importance of validation and for failure of validation will be described.Briefings in Bioinformatics 05/2011; 12(3):253-8. · 5.30 Impact Factor