A method for identifying and validating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high-density oligonucleotide arrays without the need for locus-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR) is described in this report. Genomic DNAs were divided into subsets with complexity of ~10 Mb by restriction enzyme digestion and gel-based fragment size resolution, ligated to a common adaptor, and amplified with one primer in a single PCR reaction. As a demonstration of this approach, a total of 124 SNPs were located in 190 kb of genomic sequences distributed across the entire human genome by hybridizing to high-density variant detection arrays (VDA). A set of independent validation experiments was conducted for these SNPs employing bead-based affinity selection followed by hybridization of the affinity-selected SNP-containing fragments to the same VDA that was used to identify the SNPs. A total of 98.7% (74/75) of these SNPs were confirmed using both DNA dideoxynucleotide sequencing and the VDA methodologies. With flexible sample preparation, high-density oligonucleotide arrays can be tailored for even larger scale genome-wide SNP discovery as well as validation.
"This is achieved by cleaving genomic DNA into fragments with a restriction enzyme and then introducing common adaptor sequences into the restriction products by ligation. These common sequences are then used as binding sites for common PCR primers  . This approach is used in high-density microarrays based on the Affymetrix resequencing system (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, Calif, USA)  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously developed a highly specific method for detecting SNPs with a microarray-based system using stem-loop probes. In this paper we demonstrate that coupling a multiplexing procedure with our microarray method is possible for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of four point mutations, in three different genes, involved in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. DNA from healthy individuals and patients was amplified, labeled with Cy3 by multiplex PCR; and hybridized to microarrays. Spot signal intensities were 18 to 74 times greater for perfect matches than for mismatched target sequences differing by a single nucleotide (discrimination ratio) for "homozygous" DNA from healthy individuals. "Heterozygous" mutant DNA samples gave signal intensity ratios close to 1 at the positions of the mutations as expected. Genotyping by this method was therefore reliable. This system now combines the principle of highly specific genotyping based on stem-loop structure probes with the advantages of multiplex analysis.
Research Letters in Biochemistry 06/2009; 2009(1687-6709):960560. DOI:10.1155/2009/960560
"DNA microarrays are commonly used to measure differential gene expression in cDNA libraries synthesized from mRNA transcriptomes, so as to determine which genes are active, where, and at what levels across experimental treatments (reviewed in ). Variant Detector Arrays (VDAs) measure not gene expression, but rather to variation in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) among samples of interest . VDAs rely on the ability of a ssDNA in the experimental sample to recognize and bind to its perfect oligonucleotide complement. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iterative DNA "resequencing" on oligonucleotide microarrays offers a high-throughput method to measure intraspecific iodiversity, one that is especially suited to SNP-dense gene regions such as vertebrate mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes. However, costs of single-species design and microarray fabrication are prohibitive. A cost-effective, multi-species strategy is to hybridize experimental DNAs from diverse species to a common microarray that is tiled with oligonucleotide sets from multiple, homologous reference genomes. Such a strategy requires that cross-hybridization between the experimental DNAs and reference oligos from the different species not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data. To determine the pattern and limits of such interspecific hybridization, we compared the efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP identification by a 15,452-base human-specific microarray challenged with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and codfish mtDNA genomes.
In the human genome, 99.67% of the sequence was recovered with 100.0% accuracy. Accuracy of SNP identification declines log-linearly with sequence divergence from the reference, from 0.067 to 0.247 errors per SNP in the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes, respectively. Efficiency of sequence recovery declines with the increase of the number of interspecific SNPs in the 25b interval tiled by the reference oligonucleotides. In the gorilla genome, which differs from the human reference by 10%, and in which 46% of these 25b regions contain 3 or more SNP differences from the reference, only 88% of the sequence is recoverable. In the codfish genome, which differs from the reference by > 30%, less than 4% of the sequence is recoverable, in short islands > or = 12b that are conserved between primates and fish.
Experimental DNAs bind inefficiently to homologous reference oligonucleotide sets on a re-sequencing microarray when their sequences differ by more than a few percent. The data suggest that interspecific cross-hybridization will not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data from multispecies microarrays, provided that the species' DNA sequences differ by > 20% (mean of 5b differences per 25b oligo). Recovery of DNA sequence data from multiple, distantly-related species on a single multiplex gene chip should be a practical, highly-parallel method for investigating genomic biodiversity.
"For Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA), measurements of expression are obtained from DNA/RNA hybridization between the DNA probes and the target RNA, which are single-stranded and internally labeled with biotin molecules. But the new arrays designed for polymorphism detection (5,6) and gene discovery (7) use DNA/DNA hybridization, and the target DNA molecules are double-stranded and labeled at the 3′ ends rather than internally. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA/DNA duplex formation is the basic mechanism that is used in genome tiling arrays and SNP arrays manufactured by Affymetrix. However, detailed knowledge of the physical process is still lacking. In this study, we show a free energy analysis of DNA/DNA duplex formation these arrays based on the positional-dependent nearest-neighbor (PDNN) model, which was developed previously for describing DNA/RNA duplex formation on expression microarrays. Our results showed that the two ends of a probe contribute less to the stability of the duplexes and that there is a microarray surface effect on binding affinities. We also showed that free energy cost of a single mismatch depends on the bases adjacent to the mismatch site and obtained a comprehensive table of the cost of a single mismatch under all possible combination of adjacent bases. The mismatch costs were found to be correlated with those determined in aqueous solution. We further demonstrate that the DNA copy number estimated from the SNP array correlates negatively with the target length; this is presumably caused by inefficient PCR amplification for long fragments. These results provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of microarray technology and have implications for microarray design and the interpretation of observed data.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2007; 35(3):e18. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkl1064 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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