Article

Specific cleavage of hyper-edited dsRNAs.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK
The EMBO Journal (Impact Factor: 10.75). 09/2001; 20(15):4243-52. DOI: 10.1093/emboj/20.15.4243
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Extended double-stranded DNA (dsRNA) duplexes can be hyper-edited by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Long uninterrupted dsRNA is relatively uncommon in cells, and is frequently associated with infection by DNA or RNA viruses. Moreover, extensive adenosine to inosine editing has been reported for various viruses. A number of cellular antiviral defence strategies are stimulated by dsRNA. An additional mechanism to remove dsRNA from cells may involve hyper-editing of dsRNA by ADARs, followed by targeted cleavage. We describe here a cytoplasmic endonuclease activity that specifically cleaves hyper-edited dsRNA. Cleavage occurs at specific sites consisting of alternating IU and UI base pairs. In contrast, unmodified dsRNA and even deaminated dsRNAs that contain four consecutive IU base pairs are not cleaved. Moreover, dsRNAs in which alternating IU and UI base pairs are replaced by isomorphic GU and UG base pairs are not cleaved. Thus, the cleavage of deaminated dsRNA appears to require an RNA structure that is unique to hyper-edited RNA, providing a molecular target for the disposal of hyper-edited viral RNA.

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    ABSTRACT: A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism.
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