Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on vascular hyperpermeability with thermal injury in mice.
ABSTRACT The role of nitric oxide and related synthase in thermal injury was investigated by using models of experimental burn to evaluate severity from the aspect of vascular permeability. Thermal injuries were produced in the murine right ear by pinching with a pair of preheated tweezers. Immediately thereafter, Evans blue dye was intravenously administered, and the mice injured with burns were sacrificed at various times. The burned ears were collected and hydrolyzed, and the level of extracted dye was measured as an indicator of inflammation. Vascular hyperpermeability was suppressed by the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. LNAME not only suppressed vascular hyperpermeability in thermal injuries in a dose-dependent manner but was also effective with either prophylactic or therapeutic administration. Although aminoguanidine also suppressed the inflammatory response, it had no effect on the early inflammatory phase. Nitric oxide synthase is well known to have two types of isozymes. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor specific to inducible nitric oxide synthase, suppressed the late phase 6 h after injury, suggesting that inducible nitric oxide synthase is involved in inflammatory responses of thermal injuries. These results also demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase-like protein stained the burned region immunohistochemically. Therefore, both types of enzymes mediating nitric oxide affect inflammatory responses, i.e., vascular hyperpermeability, and their regulation may lead to the development of new therapy for thermal injuries.
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ABSTRACT: The activation of a pro-inflammatory cascade after burn injury appears to be important in the development of subsequent immune dysfunction, susceptibility to sepsis and multiple organ failure. Macrophages are major producers of pro-inflammatory mediators and their productive capacity for these mediators is markedly enhanced following thermal injury. Thus, macrophage hyperactivity (as defined by increased productive capacity for pro-inflammatory mediators) appears to be of critical importance in the development of post-burn immune dysfunction. This review will focus on the current state of knowledge with regards to the role of macrophages in the development of post-burn immune dysfunction. Particular areas of discussion include: nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme systems, macrophages and the T-helper (Th)-1/Th-2 cytokine responses, alterations in macrophages signal transduction and a potential role for gamma/delta T-cells in the development of macrophage hyperactivity following thermal injury. A more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between macrophage activity and post-burn immune dysfunction will hopefully provide the basis for improved therapeutic regimes in the treatment of burn patients.Burns 03/2003; 29(1):1-14. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages (MMs) play important roles in the development of cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). However, the dynamics of neutrophils and MMs during the DTH reaction and how the immunosuppressant rapamycin modulates their behavior in vivo are rarely reported. Here, we take advantage of multi-scale optical imaging techniques and a footpad DTH reaction model to non-invasively investigate the dynamic behavior and properties of immune cells from the whole field of the footpad to the cellular level. During the classic elicitation phase of the DTH reaction, both neutrophils and MMs obviously accumulated at inflammatory foci at 24 h post-challenge. Rapamycin treatment resulted in advanced neutrophil recruitment and vascular hyperpermeability at an early stage (4 h), the reduced accumulation of neutrophils (> 50% inhibition ratio) at 48 h, and the delayed involvement of MMs in inflammatory foci. The motility parameters of immune cells in the rapamycin-treated reaction at 4 h post-challenge displayed similar mean velocities, arrest durations, mean displacements, and confinements as the classic DTH reaction at 24 h. These results indicate that rapamycin treatment shortened the initial preparation stage of the DTH reaction and attenuated its intensity, which may be due to the involvement of T helper type 2 cells or regulatory T cells.Theranostics 01/2014; 4(2):201-14. · 7.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A gas mediator, nitric oxide is converted to peroxynitrite in the presence of superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite is a potent oxidant, which injures various tissues and organs by nitration of the tyrosine residues of proteins, and it enhances the late response of inflammation. The determination of nitrated tyrosine, nitrotyrosine, which is a stable final metabolite of peroxynitrite, provides an important indicator of tissue disorders caused by peroxynitrite. This paper reports a competitive solid-phase immunoassay for measuring nitrotyrosine in various biological specimens. In this study, peroxidase-conjugated nitrotyrosine was prepared by reaction of nitrotyrosine with 1,4-benzoquinone treatment, and then it was allowed to compete with nitrotyrosine on an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody-coated 96-well multiplate. No amino acids or related compounds tested in the experiments interfered with the immune reaction of nitrotyrosine, except cysteine, which only slightly inhibited the immune reaction at the concentrations higher than 1000 times the concentration of nitrotyrosine. The limit of detection of free nitrotyrosine was approximately 500 pg/mL (2 nM) at a competition ratio (B/B(o)%) of 80%. The newly developed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method was used for assay of nitrotyrosine in biological specimens, with the following results: (i) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of RAW264.7 cells induced a significant increase in nitrotyrosine production compared to that with nonactivated cells. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester decreased nitrotyrosine production with either LPS-activated or nonactivated RAW cells. There is a relationship between nitrotyrosine production and nitrite ion. (ii) The nitrotyrosine level detected in the plasma specimens from healthy volunteers was 35.21 +/- 4.87 ng/mL (135.4 +/- 18.7 nM). (iii) The concentration of nitrotyrosine in the nasal lavage fluid of allergic rhinitis patients was 41.40 +/- 20.96 ng/mL (159.02 +/- 80.6 nM). Thus, the EIA method combines sensitivity and specificity with the ability to process a large number of specimens to quantify nitrotyrosine produced with in vivo and in vitro sources.Nitric Oxide 09/2002; 7(1):11-7. · 3.27 Impact Factor