Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein and lipoprotein levels during treatment of growth hormone-deficient adult humans.
ABSTRACT The incidence of atherosclerosis is increased in growth hormone (GH) deficient-individuals. Nonetheless, the antiatherogenic benefits of GH replacement therapy remain uncertain. In this study the effect of human recombinant growth hormone (hrGH) replacement therapy administered to GH-deficient adults on the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration and activity was analyzed. These findings were related to changes in the concentrations of the plasma lipoproteins. The hrGH was administered for 12 mon to human GH-deficient patients (n = 13; 8 men, 5 women). During the study plasma lipoproteins were separated by ultracentrifugation, and plasma cholesterol esterification rate (CER), endogenous CETP activity, and CETP concentration were measured. GH replacement therapy transiently (at 3 mon) lowered plasma concentration of CETP and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and raised total triglycerides. Furthermore, hrGH permanently increased both the plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration, which is known as atherogenic, and the proportion of cholesteryl ester in the high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) particles, which is potentially atheroprotective. The simultaneous decrease of the plasma CETP and LDL-C concentrations elicited by hrGH indicated a close relationship between LDL metabolism and the regulation of the CETP gene expression. Endogenous CETP activity and the CER were not modified because these parameters are regulated in opposite ways by plasma levels of triglycerides; that is, CER increased and CETP decreased.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of childhood obesity is rising dramatically throughout industrialised countries. To evaluate and study the impact of childhood obesity on lipoprotein metabolism, we developed a new animal model of premature obesity. Yucatan mini-pigs aged 4 months were studied over a 12-month period from childhood to adulthood. Animals were divided into two groups: the first group were overfed a Western misbalanced diet; the second group were normally fed a recommended human-type diet. Cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in VLDL-, LDL- and HDL-lipoproteins were followed from baseline to adulthood by fast protein liquid chromatography. At 10 (the end of sexual maturation) and 16 months old (adulthood), liver, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were sampled. Real-time RT-PCR was performed in order to compare apo AI, apo B, apo C-III, PPAR-alpha, insulin receptor and lipoprotein lipase gene expression between groups and ages. Differences between groups were observed only after sexual maturity. Adult overfed mini-pigs had a higher LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (P < 0.05; 0.55 (SE 0.06) for overfed v. 0.42 (SE 0.04) for normally fed pigs at the tenth month of the study). In both groups, VLDL-triacylglycerol decreased (P < 0.05). VLDL-triacylglycerol evolution in the overfed group was associated with an increase in LDL-triacylglycerol plasma concentrations (P < 0.05) after sexual maturation. LDL-triacylglycerol concentration in overfed mini-pigs went from an average of 0.28 mmol/l before sexual maturation to reach an average concentration of 0.56 mmol/l afterwards. This phenomenon has never been observed in similar studies when obesity is induced in adult mini-pigs and may represent a specific hallmark of an obesity induced during sexual maturity.British Journal Of Nutrition 08/2005; 94(2):282-9. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In mediating the transfer of cholesteryl esters (CE) from antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) to proatherogenic apolipoprotein (apo)-B-containing lipoprotein particles (including very low density lipoprotein [VLDL], VLDL remnants, intermediate density lipoprotein [IDL], and low density lipoprotein [LDL]), the CE transfer protein (CETP) plays a critical role not only in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway but also in the intravascular remodeling and recycling of HDL particles. Dyslipidemic states associated with premature atherosclerotic disease and high cardiovascular risk are characterized by a disequilibrium due to an excess of circulating concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins relative to those of atheroprotective HDL, thereby favoring arterial cholesterol deposition and enhanced atherogenesis. In such states, CETP activity is elevated and contributes significantly to the cholesterol burden in atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins. In reducing the numbers of acceptor particles for HDL-derived CE, both statins (VLDL, VLDL remnants, IDL, and LDL) and fibrates (primarily VLDL and VLDL remnants) act to attenuate potentially proatherogenic CETP activity in dyslipidemic states; simultaneously, CE are preferentially retained in HDL and thereby contribute to elevation in HDL-cholesterol content. Mutations in the CETP gene associated with CETP deficiency are characterized by high HDL-cholesterol levels (>60 mg/dL) and reduced cardiovascular risk. Such findings are consistent with studies of pharmacologically mediated inhibition of CETP in the rabbit, which argue strongly in favor of CETP inhibition as a valid therapeutic approach to delay atherogenesis. Consequently, new organic inhibitors of CETP are under development and present a potent tool for elevation of HDL in dyslipidemias involving low HDL levels and premature coronary artery disease, such as the dyslipidemia of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The results of clinical trials to evaluate the impact of CETP inhibition on premature atherosclerosis are eagerly awaited.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 01/2004; 101(1):17-38. · 7.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of glucocorticoid substitution on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome components (NCEP ATP III criteria) and serum lipid levels was determined in GH-replaced hypopituitary patients. As glucocorticoid replacement is associated with a pronounced decrease in plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, we also tested associations of HDL cholesterol with the -629C>A CETP promoter polymorphism in subjects with and without ACTH deficiency. In a university setting, we retrieved protocolized clinical and laboratory data from 165 adult hypopituitary patients, who had received GH for 1 year. After adjustment for age, sex and smoking, non-HDL cholesterol (P = 0.05) and triglycerides (P = 0.004) were higher, but HDL cholesterol was not decreased in 117 glucocorticoid (mainly cortisone acetate in two divided doses) receiving subjects compared to 48 ACTH-sufficient subjects. The prevalence of elevated plasma glucose and/or diabetes (P = 0.04) and hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.005), but not of other metabolic syndrome components, was higher in glucocorticoid-replaced subjects. HDL cholesterol was higher in -629 A allele carriers compared to -629CC homozygotes in ACTH-sufficient subjects (P = 0.04), but not in glucocorticoid-treated subjects (P = 0.13). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that only in ACTH-sufficient subjects, HDL cholesterol was independently related to this CETP gene variation (P = 0.03). In GH- and glucocorticoid-replaced hypopituitary patients, serum non-HDL cholesterol and triglycerides are higher and the prevalence of hyperglycaemia is increased, but HDL cholesterol is not decreased. Conventional glucocorticoid replacement appears to diminish the association of HDL cholesterol with a common CETP gene variation.Clinical Endocrinology 02/2008; 69(3):359-66. · 3.40 Impact Factor