Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein and lipoprotein levels during treatment of growth hormone-deficient adult humans.
ABSTRACT The incidence of atherosclerosis is increased in growth hormone (GH) deficient-individuals. Nonetheless, the antiatherogenic benefits of GH replacement therapy remain uncertain. In this study the effect of human recombinant growth hormone (hrGH) replacement therapy administered to GH-deficient adults on the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration and activity was analyzed. These findings were related to changes in the concentrations of the plasma lipoproteins. The hrGH was administered for 12 mon to human GH-deficient patients (n = 13; 8 men, 5 women). During the study plasma lipoproteins were separated by ultracentrifugation, and plasma cholesterol esterification rate (CER), endogenous CETP activity, and CETP concentration were measured. GH replacement therapy transiently (at 3 mon) lowered plasma concentration of CETP and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and raised total triglycerides. Furthermore, hrGH permanently increased both the plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration, which is known as atherogenic, and the proportion of cholesteryl ester in the high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) particles, which is potentially atheroprotective. The simultaneous decrease of the plasma CETP and LDL-C concentrations elicited by hrGH indicated a close relationship between LDL metabolism and the regulation of the CETP gene expression. Endogenous CETP activity and the CER were not modified because these parameters are regulated in opposite ways by plasma levels of triglycerides; that is, CER increased and CETP decreased.
- Medicina Clínica 06/2003; 120(16):630-7. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In mediating the transfer of cholesteryl esters (CE) from antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) to proatherogenic apolipoprotein (apo)-B-containing lipoprotein particles (including very low density lipoprotein [VLDL], VLDL remnants, intermediate density lipoprotein [IDL], and low density lipoprotein [LDL]), the CE transfer protein (CETP) plays a critical role not only in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway but also in the intravascular remodeling and recycling of HDL particles. Dyslipidemic states associated with premature atherosclerotic disease and high cardiovascular risk are characterized by a disequilibrium due to an excess of circulating concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins relative to those of atheroprotective HDL, thereby favoring arterial cholesterol deposition and enhanced atherogenesis. In such states, CETP activity is elevated and contributes significantly to the cholesterol burden in atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins. In reducing the numbers of acceptor particles for HDL-derived CE, both statins (VLDL, VLDL remnants, IDL, and LDL) and fibrates (primarily VLDL and VLDL remnants) act to attenuate potentially proatherogenic CETP activity in dyslipidemic states; simultaneously, CE are preferentially retained in HDL and thereby contribute to elevation in HDL-cholesterol content. Mutations in the CETP gene associated with CETP deficiency are characterized by high HDL-cholesterol levels (>60 mg/dL) and reduced cardiovascular risk. Such findings are consistent with studies of pharmacologically mediated inhibition of CETP in the rabbit, which argue strongly in favor of CETP inhibition as a valid therapeutic approach to delay atherogenesis. Consequently, new organic inhibitors of CETP are under development and present a potent tool for elevation of HDL in dyslipidemias involving low HDL levels and premature coronary artery disease, such as the dyslipidemia of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The results of clinical trials to evaluate the impact of CETP inhibition on premature atherosclerosis are eagerly awaited.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 01/2004; 101(1):17-38. · 7.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reduced growth hormone (GH) secretion is observed in obesity and may contribute to increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Lipoprotein characteristics including increased small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are known independent risk factors for CVD. We hypothesized that reduced GH secretion in obesity would be associated with a more atherogenic lipid profile including increased small dense LDL particles. To evaluate this hypothesis, we studied 102 normal weight and obese men and women using standard GH stimulation testing to assess GH secretory capacity and performed comprehensive lipoprotein analyses including determination of lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations using proton NMR spectroscopy. Obese subjects were stratified into reduced or sufficient GH secretion based on the median peak-stimulated GH (≤6·25 μg/l). Obese subjects with reduced GH secretion (n = 35) demonstrated a smaller mean LDL and HDL particle size in comparison to normal weight subjects (n = 33) or obese subjects with sufficient GH (n = 34) by ANOVA (P < 0·0001). Univariate analyses demonstrated peak-stimulated GH was positively associated with LDL (r = 0·50; P < 0·0001) and HDL (r = 0·57; P < 0·0001), but not VLDL (P = 0·06) particle size. Multivariate regression analysis controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco, use of lipid-lowering medication, BMI and HOMA demonstrated peak-stimulated GH remained significantly associated with LDL particle size (β = 0·01; P = 0·01; R(2) = 0·42; P < 0·0001 for overall model) and HDL particle size (β = 0·008; P = 0·001; R(2) = 0·44; P < 0·0001 for overall model). These results suggest reduced peak-stimulated GH in obesity is independently associated with a more atherogenic lipoprotein profile defined in terms of particle size.Clinical Endocrinology 08/2011; 76(2):220-7. · 3.40 Impact Factor