Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the glucose transporter gene GLUT1 in maturity-onset diabetes of the young.
ABSTRACT Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), an autosomal dominant, early-onset form of type-2 diabetes, is caused by mutations in five different genes all leading to defect(s) in the pancreatic beta cell. However, some patients with this form of diabetes do not bear a mutation in any of the known (MODY1-MODY5) loci, a notion prompting the search for new MODY genes. Clinical and genetic data point toward a defect in beta cell function in the majority of patients with MODY, and partners of the glucose-sensing device are reasonable functional candidates. The high-capacity glucose transporter GLUT2 has the ideal kinetic features for performing this task. However, complete GLUT2 deficiency in humans leads to hepato-renal glycogenosis (Fanconi-Bickel syndrome), and heterozygous GLUT2 mutations apparently behave in a recessive manner. Furthermore, in the human beta cell GLUT1 mRNA is predominant when compared to GLUT2 and glucose influx appears to be largely mediated by this low-Km transporter. Thus, we looked for the presence of sequence variants by polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) within the GLUT1 gene in 90 Italian pedigrees negative at the search for mutations in glucokinase (MODY2) and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (MODY3), the two genes responsible for about 60% of MODY cases in Italian children. We found three already described silent mutations and a new single base deletion in position -173 of the 5' regulatory region. The -173de1A variant, which was detected in the heterozygous or homozygous state in 30.8% of MODY patients examined and is located in a Nuclear Factor Y binding sequence, is not associated with hyperglycemia in affected relatives of MODY probands. In conclusion, it appears from these results that the glucose transporter gene GLUT1 is unlikely to play a major role in the etiology of MODY diabetes.
- Diabetologia 04/1996; 39(3):370-1. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The need to identify disease-causing mutations and DNA polymorphisms has increased with the continuing identification of new candidate genes. PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) is one of the techniques most widely used to identify a mutant sequence or a polymorphism in a known gene. However, the original SSCP protocols using the incorporation of radioactive label and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on sequencing gels for detection were labour intensive and time-consuming. Here we describe a simple SSCP protocol using MDE™ gel solution and a midi gel format to detect SSCP variations in the glucose transporter gene GLUT1, that we have previously analysed with the standard radioactive SSCP protocol, and we have also tested this method on the previously described point mutation (A/G transition in exon 1) of the CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated-4) gene. All known variants were detected. Based on the results, this technique appears to be simple, with no use of radioactive labels and with easy handling of the gel. Furthermore, it needs little optimisation, is relatively rapid and highly sensitive. We propose this method for the first screening for candidate gene variants.Journal of Biotechnology - J BIOTECHNOL. 01/2000; 78(2):201-204.
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ABSTRACT: Special features of glucose metabolism in pancreatic beta-cells are central to an understanding of the physiological role of these cells in glucose homeostasis. Several of these characteristics are emphasized: a high-capacity system for glucose transport; glucose phosphorylation by the high-Km glucokinase (GK), which is rate-limiting for glucose metabolism and determines physiologically the glucose dependency curves of many processes in beta-cell intermediary and energy metabolism and of insulin release and is therefore viewed as glucose sensor; remarkably low activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the presence of effective hydrogen shuttles to allow virtually quantitative oxidation of glycolytic NADH; the near absence of glycogen and fatty acid synthesis and of gluconeogenesis, such that intermediary metabolism is primarily catabolic; a crucial role of mitochondrial processes, including the citric acid cycle, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation with FoF1 ATPase governing the glucose-dependent increase of the ATP mass-action ratio; a Ca(2+)-independent glucose-induced respiratory burst and increased ATP production in beta-cells as striking manifestations of crucial mitochondrial reactions; control of the membrane potential by the mass-action ratio of ATP and voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx as signal for insulin release; accumulation of malonyl-CoA, acyl-CoA, and diacylglycerol as essential or auxiliary metabolic coupling factors; and amplification of the adenine nucleotide, lipid-related, and Ca2+ signals to recruit many auxiliary processes to maximize insulin biosynthesis and release. The biochemical design also suggests certain candidate diabetes genes related to fuel metabolism: low-activity and low-stability GK mutants that explain in part the maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) phenotype in humans and mitochondrial DNA mutations of FoF1 ATPase components thought to cause late-onset diabetes in BHEcdb rats. These two examples are chosen to illustrate that metabolic reactions with high control strength participating in beta-cell energy metabolism and generating coupling factors and intracellular signals are steps with great susceptibility to genetic, environmental, and pharmacological influences. Glucose metabolism of beta-cells also controls, in addition to insulin secretion and insulin biosynthesis, an adaptive response to excessive fuel loads and may increase the beta-cell mass by hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and neogenesis. It is probable that this adaptive response is compromised in diabetes because of the GK or ATPase mutants that are highlighted here. A comprehensive knowledge of beta-cell intermediary and energy metabolism is therefore the foundation for understanding the role of these cells in fuel homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of the most prevalent metabolic disease, diabetes.Diabetes 03/1996; 45(2):223-41. · 7.90 Impact Factor