The parkin gene and its phenotype. Italian PD Genetics Study Group, French PD Genetics Study Group and the European Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility in Parkinson's Disease.
ABSTRACT Mutations of the parkin gene on chromosome 6 cause autosomal recessive, early onset parkinsonism. This is the most frequent form of monogenic parkinsonism so far identified. The associated phenotypical spectrum encompasses early onset, levodopa-responsive parkinsonism (average onset in the early 30s in Europe), and it overlaps with dopa-responsive dystonia in cases with the earliest onset, and with clinically typical Parkinson's disease in cases with later onset. Despite clinical features, Lewy bodies are not found at autopsy in brains of patients with parkin mutations. The parkin protein possesses ubiquitin ligase activity, which is abolished by the pathogenic mutations.
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ABSTRACT: Protein aggregation as a result of misfolding is a common theme underlying neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease (PD), research on protein misfolding and aggregation has taken center stage following the association of alpha-synuclein gene mutations with familial forms of the disease, and importantly, the identification of the protein as a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of PD. Fueling this excitement is the subsequent identification of another PD-linked gene, parkin, as a ubiquitin ligase associated with the proteasome, a major intracellular protein degradation machinery that destroys unwanted, albeit mainly soluble, proteins. Notably, a role for parkin in the clearance of insoluble protein aggregates via macroautophagy has also been implicated by more recent studies. Paradoxically, like alpha-synuclein, parkin is also prone to misfolding, especially in the presence of age-related stress. Similarly, protein misfolding can also affect the function of other key PD-linked genes such as DJ-1, PINK1, and perhaps also LRRK2. Here, we discuss the role of protein misfolding and aggregation in PD, and how impairments of the various cellular protein quality systems could precipitate these events and lead to neuronal demise. Towards the end of our discussion, we also revisited the role of Lewy body formation in PD.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 03/2009; 11(9):2119-34. · 8.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DYT-5 dystonia usually presents as a dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) with early or late parkinsonian manifestations and/or dystonic features. Genetically, these patients have been described as having a wide array of independent mutations in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 gene (GCH1), and these patients may also have a wide array of clinical manifestations. A Colombian family with six affected female members was characterized. Three members, including the index case, revealed mild parkinsonism, whereas three granddaughters of the index case showed severe generalized dystonia. No men were affected. There was anticipation, and a female predominance was uncovered. Treatment with levodopa was generally effective except in a case with severe skeletal deformities and contractions. Detailed genetic analysis in the index case revealed a new mutation in exon 1 of GCH1 (c.159delG). This study revealed a new mutation of GCH1 that resulted in heterogeneous clinical presentations of DRD within a large family.Tremor and other hyperkinetic movements (New York, N.Y.). 01/2013; 3.