The effect of antisense Bcl-2 oligonucleotides on Bcl-2 protein expression and apoptosis in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Bcl-2 is an important determinant of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder recurrence and progression as well as a factor in patient response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. We determined Bcl-2 down-regulation after antisense oligonucleotide therapy and synergism with mitomycin C in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
Bcl-2 protein was quantified using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in 4 bladder cancer cell lines, in bladder washings from 6 patients with carcinoma in situ and in 16 patient tumor samples. The synergistic effects of antisense oligonucleotides G3139 and 2009, and mitomycin C were investigated in 4 cell lines, while 2009 down-regulation was examined in 20 tumor explants in an ex vivo model.
Bcl-2 protein expression was found in all 4 cell lines and in 5 of the 6 cell populations derived from patients with carcinoma in situ. Of the 16 tumors 7 were classified positive by frozen section immunohistochemistry and quantitative flow cytometry. G3139 and 2009 down-regulated Bcl-2 protein expression in all 4 cell lines and 2009 down-regulated Bcl-2 protein expression in half of the Bcl-2 positive tumor specimens. There was only evidence in 1 cell line, T24/83, that Bcl-2 protein expression down-regulation enhanced mitomycin C induced apoptotic cell death.
Bcl-2 was expressed in a significant proportion of bladder tumors and in carcinoma in situ. Therefore, antisense oligonucleotides represent a viable strategy for Bcl-2 protein down-regulation. However, it may not always translate into an increased level of mitomycin C induced apoptosis in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
- European Journal of Cancer 07/1996; 32A(6):921-6. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma is a prime example of cancers that respond poorly to various treatment modalities including chemotherapy. A number of chemotherapeutic agents have been shown recently to act by inducing apoptosis, a type of cell death antagonized by the bcl-2 gene. Human melanoma expresses Bcl-2 in up to 90% of all cases. In the present study we demonstrate that bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide treatment improves the chemosensitivity of human melanoma grown in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Our findings suggest that reduction of Bcl-2 in melanoma, and possibly also in a variety of other tumors, may be a novel and rational approach to improve chemosensitivity and treatment outcome.Nature Medicine 03/1998; 4(2):232-4. · 22.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Some women with benign breast disease eventually develop breast cancer. The mammary gland undergoes tissue remodelling according to hormonal influences, involving a balance between quiescence, proliferation, and mechanisms of cell death. Proliferation and/or apoptotic events could therefore be investigated to help understand the mechanisms of benign lesion formation and identify mastopathies with a poor prognosis. bcl-2 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 75 benign mastopathies. Protein levels were quantitated with an image analyser in various epithelial structures on frozen sections, including adenoses, fibroadenomas, ductal epithelial hyperplasias, cysts, and apparently normal surrounding lobules and ducts. bcl-2 levels were equivalent in apparently normal lobules and ducts, as well as in cysts and ductal hyperplasias. bcl-2 staining was significantly higher in fibroadenomas, known to be of lobular origin [mean = 10.1, quantitative immunochemistry score (QIC) arbitrary units (AU), n = 19], than in normal lobules (mean = 5.1 AU, n = 43, P = 7 x 10(-5). bcl-2 levels in normal lobules and ducts varied according to the menstrual cycle, being higher during the follicular than the luteal phase (P = 1.8 x 10(-2) and P = 1.7 x 10(-2), respectively). This was further supported by a statistical link (P = 5 x 10(-3) between high levels of circulating progesterone and weak bcl-2 staining in lobules and ducts. This progesterone-dependent variation was absent in fibroadenomas. No statistical correlation was found between bcl-2 expression and circulating levels of oestradiol, and follicle-stimulating or luteotrophic hormones. Although these are only preliminary results, they suggest an influence of progesterone on bcl-2 expression which might be lost in fibroadenomas. A hypothesis is proposed concerning the potential involvement of altered regulation of the apoptotic process in the formation of such benign lesions.The Journal of Pathology 11/1997; 183(2):204-11. · 7.59 Impact Factor