Phosphonate quinoxalinedione AMPA antagonists.
ABSTRACT In the Western world, over 350,000 deaths and $30 billion in medical costs are attributed annually to stroke. Head and spinal cord trauma cause an estimated 250,000 deaths annually and result in medical costs of $15 billion. Although stroke and head/spinal cord trauma are leading causes of disability and death in humans, no adequate neuroprotective treatment is available. Glutamate antagonists derived from the quinoxa-linedione scaffold are as drug candidates for neuroprotection in stroke and trauma. Quinoxalinedione derivatives such as 2,3-dihydroxy-6- nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline and 6-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-7-nitro-2,3-(1H,4H)-quinoxalinedione failed clinical trials because of insolu-bility and resulting nephrotoxicity. Introduction of a phosphonate group into the quinoxalinedione skeleton improves solubility and leaves potency for the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor unchanged. Phosphonate quinoxalinedione derivatives ZK202000 and ZK200775 protected rodent brain against sequelae of permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and head trauma. No major deleterious effects on motor coordination, cardiovascular, or respiratory systems were detected in doses required for neuroprotection. No psychotomimetic and no neurotoxic side effects, typical for N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, were observed following treatment with phosphonate quinoxalinediones.
Handbook of Contemporary Neuropharmacology, 03/2007; , ISBN: 9780470101001
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ABSTRACT: Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an endogenous water soluble molecule, is synthesized in the brain and is involved in many aspects of neuronal activity, including metabolism and neuronal membrane formation and integrity. To determine ALCAR's neuroprotective effects, focal cerebral ischemia was induced using four models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and treatment with 0-400 mg/kg ALCAR (i.p.) prior to MCAO. While acute doses were without effect, pretreatment with chronic ALCAR (400 mg/kg/day for five days) significantly reduced infarct size. Lower chronic ALCAR doses were not effective. Additionally, elevations in microdialysate glutamate post-MCAO were attenuated by ALCAR treatment.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2010; 1199:95-104. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05351.x · 4.38 Impact Factor