Polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid displaces proteins from membrane rafts by altering raft lipid composition
ABSTRACT Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 (n-3)) inhibit T lymphocyte activation probably by displacing acylated signaling proteins from membrane lipid rafts. Under physiological conditions, saturated fatty acyl residues of such proteins partition into the cytoplasmic membrane lipid leaflet with high affinity for rafts that are enriched in saturated fatty acyl-containing lipids. However, the biochemical alteration causing displacement of acylated proteins from rafts in PUFA-treated T cells is still under debate but could principally be attributed to altered protein acylation or changes in raft lipid composition. We show that treatment of Jurkat T cells with polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 (n-3)) results in marked enrichment of PUFAs (20:5; 22:5) in lipids from isolated rafts. Moreover, PUFAs were significantly incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine that predominantly resides in the cytoplasmic membrane lipid leaflet. Notably, palmitate-labeled Src family kinase Lck and the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) were both displaced from lipid rafts indicating that acylation by PUFAs is not required for protein displacement from rafts in PUFA-treated T cells. In conclusion, these data provide strong evidence that displacement of acylated proteins from rafts in PUFA-treated T cells is predominantly due to altered raft lipid composition.
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ABSTRACT: Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid enhanced ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death in primary rat hepatocytes via an increase in membrane fluidity and lipid raft clustering. In this context, another n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was tested with a special emphasis on physical and chemical alteration of lipid rafts. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with DHA reduced significantly ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death. DHA protection could be related to an alteration of lipid rafts. Indeed, rafts exhibited a marked increase in membrane fluidity and packing defects leading to the exclusion of a raft protein marker, flotillin. Furthermore, DHA strongly inhibited disulfide bridge formation, even in control cells, thus suggesting a disruption of protein-protein interactions inside lipid rafts. This particular spatial organization of lipid rafts due to DHA subsequently prevented the ethanol-induced lipid raft clustering. Such a prevention was then responsible for the inhibition of phospholipase C-γ translocation into rafts, and consequently of both lysosome accumulation and elevation in cellular low-molecular-weight iron content, a prooxidant factor. In total, the present study suggests that DHA supplementation could represent a new preventive approach for patients with alcoholic liver disease based upon modulation of the membrane structures.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.061
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ABSTRACT: Background:High intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been associated with clinical progression in prostate cancer (CaP). This study investigates the signalling mechanism by which the omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) induces prostatic cellular migration to bone marrow stroma.Methods:Western blot analysis of the PC-3, PC3-GFP, DU 145 and LNCaP cells or their lipid raft (LR) components post AA stimulation was conducted in association with assays for adhesion and invasion through the bone marrow endothelial monolayers.Results:Arachidonic acid increased transendothelial migration of PC3-GFP cells (adhesion 37%±0.08, P=0.0124; transmigration 270%±0.145, P=0.0008). Akt, Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathways were induced by AA and integrally involved in transendothelial migration. LR were critical in AA uptake and induced Akt activity. Ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2), localised in LR, is expressed in DU 145 and PC-3 cells. Arachidonic acid induced a rapid increase of EphA2 Akt-dependent/ligand-independent activation, while knockdown of the EphrinA1 ligand decreased AA induced transendothelial migration, with an associated decrease in Src and FAK activity. Arachidonic acid activated Akt in EphA2(-) LNCaP cells but failed to induce BMEC transendothelial invasion.Conclusion:Arachidonic acid induced stimulation of EphA2 in vitro is associated fundamentally with CaP epithelial migration across the endothelial barrier.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 4 October 2012; doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.457www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 107(10). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.457
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ABSTRACT: There is interest in the enrichment of poultry meat with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in order to increase the consumption of these fatty acids by humans. However, there is concern that high levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have detrimental effects on immune function in chickens. The effect of feeding increasing levels of fish oil (FO) on immune function was investigated in broiler chickens. Three-week-old broilers were fed 1 of 4 wheat-soybean basal diets that contained 0, 30, 50, or 60 g/kg of FO until slaughter. At slaughter, samples of blood, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus were collected from each bird. A range of immune parameters, including immune tissue weight, immuno-phenotyping, phagocytosis, and cell proliferation, were assessed. The pattern of fatty acid incorporation reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet. The FO did not affect the weight of the spleen, but it did increase thymus weight when fed at 50 g/kg (P < 0.001). Fish oil also lowered bursal weights when fed at 50 or 60 g/kg (P < 0.001). There was no significant effect of FO on immune cell phenotypes in the spleen, thymus, bursa, or blood. Feeding 60 g/kg of FO significantly decreased the percentage of monocytes engaged in phagocytosis, but it increased their mean fluorescence intensity relative to that of broilers fed 50 g/kg of FO. Lymphocyte proliferation was significantly decreased after feeding broiler chickens diets rich in FO when expressed as division index or proliferation index, although there was no significant effect of FO on the percentage of divided cells. In conclusion, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation in broiler chickens, highlighting the need for the poultry industry to consider the health status of poultry when poultry meat is being enriched with FO.Poultry Science 01/2012; 91(1):74-88. DOI:10.3382/ps.2011-01693