Stasi, R., Pagano, A., Stipa, E. & Amadori, S. Rituximab chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment for adults with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 98, 952-957
ABSTRACT The role of rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, in the treatment of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has not been determined. The effectiveness and side effects of this therapeutic modality were investigated in a cohort of 25 individuals with chronic ITP. All patients had ITP that had been resistant to between 2 and 5 different therapeutic regimens, including 8 patients who had already failed splenectomy. Patients were scheduled to receive intravenous rituximab at the dose of 375 mg/m(2) once weekly for 4 weeks. Rituximab infusion-related side effects were observed in 18 patients, but were of modest intensity and did not require discontinuation of treatment. A complete response (platelet count greater than 100 x 10(9)/L) was observed in 5 cases, a partial response (platelet count between 50 and 100 x 10(9)/L) in 5 cases, and a minor response (platelet count below 50 x 10(9)/L, with no need for continued treatment) in 3 cases, with an overall response rate of 52%. In 7 cases, responses were sustained (6 months or longer). In 2 patients with relapsed disease, repeat challenge with rituximab induced a new response. In patients with a complete or partial response, a significant rise in platelet concentrations was observed early during the course of treatment, usually 1 week after the first rituximab infusion. No clinical or laboratory parameter was found to predict treatment outcome, although there was a suggestion that women and younger patients have a better chance of response. In conclusion, rituximab therapy has a limited but valuable effect in patients with chronic ITP. In view of its mild toxicity and the lack of effective alternative treatments, its use in the setting of chronic refractory ITP is warranted. (Blood. 2001;98:952-957)
- SourceAvailable from: Sophie Auger
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Early anti-CD20 data outcome is also inferior to outcomes seen after splenectomy. However, all but two published studies (Stasi et al, 2001; Cooper et al, 2004) have reported only a small number of patients, and most cohorts have included a mix of splenectomized and/or non-splenectomized patients. Although a recent French pilot study assessed rituximab efficacy and safety in non-splenectomized adults with chronic ITP (Godeau et al, 2008), it remains important to determine whether rituximab is an effective treatment for delaying or avoiding splenectomy in chronic ITP. "
ABSTRACT: Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder with absence of any underlying cause. Corticosteroids are the standard initial treatment. Splenectomy is the main second-line treatment. A trend to delay or avoid splenectomy has developed thanks to new agents like rituximab. Few studies have assessed the response rate to rituximab in chronic ITP. We performed the first meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and observational studies on rituximab as an effective splenectomy-avoiding option in adult chronic ITP. Overall methods were adapted from published guidelines for meta-analysis (meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Two haematologist investigators carried out study selection and data extraction independently, recording overall response rate (ORR) and complete response (CR) as primary assessment criteria. Of 364 records were identified through electronic databases. Of 19 retrospective or prospective observational studies were retained after removing duplicate studies and full-text analyses. The ORR was 57% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 48-65), for 368 non-splenectomized patients after rituximab; CR was 41% (95% CI: 0·33-0·51) for 346 patients. Results were stable for ORR and CR in all sub-analyses. In univariate or multivariate mixed-effect meta-regression, age was the most relevant effect. According to our results, rituximab should be used in earlier in non-splenectomized patients.British Journal of Haematology 05/2012; 158(3):386-98. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2012.09169.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "However, safety concerns have also been noted [11,14]. Although standard and emerging therapies have reduced the risk of bleeding among chronic ITP patients, treatments are associated with side effects that may impose substantial burden on patients. "
ABSTRACT: Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a debilitating autoimmune disorder that causes a reduction in blood platelets and increased risk of bleeding. ITP is currently managed with various pharmacologic therapies and splenectomy.This study was conducted to assess patient perceived and reported treatment side effects, as well as the perceived burden or bother, and need to reduce or stop treatment, associated with these side effects among adult patients with chronic ITP. A Web-enabled survey was administered to members of a US-based ITP patient support group. Patients reported demographic and clinical characteristics, ITP treatments' side effects for treatments received since diagnosed, level of bother (or distress), and need to reduce or stop treatment, associated with side effects. Current and past exposure was assessed for five specific treatment types: corticosteroids (CS), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D), rituximab (RT), and splenectomy (SPL), as well as for other patient-referenced therapies (captured as "other"). The survey was completed by 589 patients; 78% female, 89% white, mean age 48 years (SD = 14.71), and 68% reported a typical low platelet count of < 50,000/μL. Current or past treatment with CS was reported by 92% (n = 542) of patients, 56% (n = 322) for IVIg, 36% (n = 209) for anti-D, 36% (n = 213) for RT, and 39% (n = 227) for SPL. A substantial proportion of CS-treated patients reported side effects (98%, P < 0.05), were highly bothered by their side effects (53.1%, P < 0.05), and reported the need to stop or reduce treatment due to side effects (37.8%, P < 0.05). Among patients reporting side effects of treatment, significant associations were noted for the number of side effects, aggregate bother of reported side effects, and the need to stop or reduce treatment (all P < 0.05). Current ITP treatments, particularly corticosteroids, are associated with multiple bothersome side effects that may lead to patients stopping or reducing therapy. Open, informed and complete communication between clinician and patient regarding both the benefits and the side effects of ITP treatment may better prepare patients for their prescribed regimens.BMC Blood Disorders 03/2012; 12(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1471-2326-12-2
- "However, the most consistent results with monoclonal antibody therapy have been obtained with rituximab, an anti- CD20 chimeric antibody inducing B cell depletion. At the dawn of the new millennium rituximab was reported an efficacious therapy for a significant proportion of adults with chronic ITP (Saleh et al, 2000; Stasi et al, 2001) and this agent soon became the standard (albeit unlicensed) treatment for patients with this condition in many countries. There is no doubt that the major breakthrough in the treatment of chronic ITP has been witnessed in the last few years, with the publication of the results of randomized clinical trials with the TPO receptor agonists, more specifically romiplostim (Kuter et al, 2008, 2010) and eltrombopag (Bussel et al, 2009a; Cheng et al, 2010). "
Article: ITP: A historical perspective[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A clinical syndrome of bleeding and purpura consistent with a diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was described by Werlhof long before platelets were identified as the cellular component of blood playing an essential role in primary haemostasis. Although a role for the spleen was suggested nearly a century ago, the pathophysiology of ITP has remained elusive for many decades. During this time Werlhof's disease was renamed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, from which the acronym ITP originally derives. The second half of the 20th century brought recognition of the autoimmune components of ITP, and hence the need for a new standard nomenclature, which has recently been accepted. ITP currently stands for Immune Thrombocytopenia, a name that more appropriately reflects the low platelet count rather than purpura as the main feature of the disease, as well as to defining its underlying nature. Advances in our knowledge of the disease have paralleled the availability of new therapeutic agents, and we are now entering an era of pathophysiologically-based treatment options.British Journal of Haematology 04/2011; 153(4):437-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08562.x · 4.71 Impact Factor