Confocal imaging of Schwann-cell migration along muscle-vein combined grafts used to bridge nerve defects in the rat.
ABSTRACT Schwann cells guide axonal regrowth during peripheral nerve repair. In a case of a nerve lesion with substance loss, a graft conduit is necessary to enable axons to reach the distal nerve stump. If a non-nervous autograft is used, the question arises as to the presence and origin of Schwann cells along the grafted tube. We addressed this issue using a tubulization technique based on the use of an autologous vein filled with fresh skeletal muscle for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in the rat. We showed that both ends of the graft were early and progressively colonized by a number of glial fibrillar acid protein-immunopositive and S-100 immunonegative cells, an immunocytochemical pattern typical of immature Schwann cells. These cells, which were located in the interstice between grafted skeletal muscle fibers, are mainly organized into long chains oriented along the main axis of the graft and progressively colonize all the graft. Schwann cells coming from the distal nerve end are suitable for being responsible for guiding regeneration of nerve fibers along the graft toward the correct periphery (tissue specificity).
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ABSTRACT: The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. Despite advancements in microsurgical technique, results after nerve repair have been unpredictable and dis appointing. The management of these nerve injuries relies on having a thorough understanding of peripheral nerve anatomy. This is the basis of the classification schemes by Seddon and Sunderland, in which the prognosis of nerve injuries varies depending on the degree of injury to their substructures. The most recent advances in the management of peripheral nerve injuries rely on the ability to manipulate the pathophysiologic processes triggered by nerve injuries and regeneration. End-to-end primary repair should be sought whenever a tension-free repair can be attained. If there is a significant nerve gap, use of nerve autograft remains the gold standard. In nerve injuries where a nerve autograft is not possible, the use of nerve allograft, as well as autogenous, biodegradable, and synthetic nerve conduits has shown promising results in experimental studies.American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) 04/2000; 29(3):167-73.
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ABSTRACT: We have tested the stimulation of Schwann cell migration from the distal stump of a 1 week transected sciatic nerve of adult rats by denervated skeletal muscle. Migrating Schwann cells were distinguished by the presence of non-specific cholinesterase (nChE) activity and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) at a distance of about 6 mm among denervated muscle fibres 4 weeks after insertion of the distal stump. In addition, the distal stump was introduced into the open end of a silicone chamber packed with artificial fibrin sponge (Gelaspon) soaked in homogenate from intact or denervated muscles. A larger amount of migrated Schwann cells was observed in the chambers filled with homogenate from denervated muscles. An alteration in the amounts of Schwann cells migrating into the silicone chambers observed after histochemical staining (nChE or GFAP) was supported by biochemical measurements of the nChE activity. The biochemical assessment of the nChE activity revealed the increased amounts of migrated Schwann cells in proportion to the protein contents of homogenates from the denervated muscles. In addition, heating of homogenate from the denervated muscles resulted in a diminution of Schwann cell migration. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation did not show an increased proliferation of Schwann cells inside the chambers following application of homogenate from the denervated muscles in comparison with the homogenate from the innervated muscles. Our results suggest a stimulation of Schwann cell migration from the distal stump of the transected sciatic nerve by soluble factor(s) produced by denervated skeletal muscles.Glia 11/1994; 12(2):99-107. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The acellular nerve graft was utilised to restore a functional reinnervation of the biceps brachii muscle from the motoneuron pool of the cervical spinal cord. The musculocutaneous nerve stump was sutured to an acellular nerve graft, the opposite end of which was inserted into the cervical spinal cord cranial to the avulsed C5 ventral root. The acellular nerve graft was repopulated by Schwann cells heavily immunostained for NGFr within 90 days. The Schwann cells migrating from the nerve stump reached the spinal cord grey matter, where they stimulated the motoneurons to send axonal sprouts. The functional reinnervation of the biceps brachii muscle was assessed by means of the behavioural (grooming) test and EMG, the presence of myelinated and unmyelinated axons was demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. The axonal reconnection of the musculocutaneous nerve stump was verified by horseradish peroxidase retrograde labelling of the spinal motoneurons. Moreover, the motoneurons on the operated side of the C5 spinal segment displayed increased immunostaining for GAP-43 in comparison to the contralateral side, whereas the pattern of AChE histochemical reaction was similar on both the operated and contralateral side, of the C5 segment 150 days after acellular graft implantation. The regenerated axons bridged a 4-cm long originally acellular nerve graft to reach and reinnervate the biceps brachii muscle. The reinnervation of the neuromuscular junctions was morphologically determined by immunofluorescence for neurofilaments. The number of myelinated axons in the acellular nerve graft was significantly higher than those growing over the cellular graft, but their diameter was smaller. The results of experiments presented here demonstrate functional recovery of the biceps muscle reinnervation through the acellular nerve graft repopulated by migrating Schwann cells. The process of reinnervation by acellular nerve graft is however delayed and worse in comparison with the cellular graft.Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger 04/2000; 182(2):123-31. · 1.96 Impact Factor