Self-report of extent of recovery and barriers to recovery after traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study
To examine the perspective of survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) regarding the extent and nature of their recovery over time.
Inception cohort, longitudinal study.
Level I trauma center.
One hundred fifty-seven consecutively hospitalized individuals with TBI (mean age, 36.1 yr; 80% men) with a broad range of injury severity.
Participants reported the extent of their recovery and barriers to full recovery at 1, 6, and 12 months.
Participants reported a median return to normal at the 3 follow-up times of 65%, 80%, and 85%. After 1 month, self-reported extent of recovery correlated well with performance on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (p <.001 at 6 and 12 mo) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Performance IQ (p =.001 at 12 mo). The major reported barrier to recovery was physical difficulties, which constituted over half of the concerns at all time periods. Report of physical-related concerns decreased significantly (p =.002) over time whereas cognition-related concerns increased significantly (p =.02).
Brain injury survivors consider themselves to have greater recovery than previously reported by clinicians or family members, consider physical problems a significant factor in their recovery, and appear to become more aware of cognitive impairments over time.
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