Comparison of the frequency of interleukin (IL)-2-, interferon-gamma-, and IL-4-producing T cells in 2 diseases, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2, with distinct clinical outcomes.
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 infection is associated with a better clinical outcome, slower rates of CD4 T cell decline, and lower viremia than is HIV-1. This study compares HIV-1 and HIV-2 in regard to the percentages of interleukin (IL)-2-, interferon (IFN)-gamma-, and IL-4-producing cells at the single-cell level, as determined by flow cytometry. At a given degree of CD4 T cell depletion, the frequency of T cells able to produce IL-2 is better preserved in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 infection, particularly within the CD4 T cell subset. As described for HIV-1 immunodeficiency, HIV-2-positive patients exhibit a marked expansion of terminally differentiated effector CD8 T cells (CD28(-)CD27(-)IFN-gamma(+)). However, the proportion of CD8 T cells able to simultaneously produce IL-2 and IFN-gamma is higher in HIV-2 disease. Considering the central role of IL-2 as a lymphocyte proliferative and survival factor, these findings provide a possible immunologic basis for the distinct course of HIV-2 immunodeficiency.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major global health concern with more than 30 million individuals currently infected worldwide. To date, attempts to stimulate protective immunity to viral components of HIV have been unsuccessful in preventing or clearing infection. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an established murine model of persistent viral infection that has been instrumental in illuminating several critical aspects of antiviral immunity. Although virologically the course of LCMV infection differs significantly from HIV, the immune responses and regulatory mechanisms elicited by these two viruses are markedly similar. In this review we discuss important recent findings in the LCMV model, highlighting the role of host-derived proteins in shaping immune responses to persistent infections, and explore the therapeutic potential of manipulating these pathways to enhance HIV vaccination strategies.Immunologic Research 12/2010; 48(1-3):3-13. · 2.96 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. The development/survival of IL-17-producing CD4 T cells (Th17) share critical cues with B-cell differentiation and the circulating follicular T helper subset was recently shown to be enriched in Th17 cells able to help B-cell differentiation. We investigated a putative link between Th17-cell homeostasis and B cells by studying the Th17-cell compartment in primary B-cell immunodeficiencies. Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID), defined by defects in B-cell differentiation into plasma and memory B cells, are frequently associated with autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations but we found no relationship between these and Th17-cell frequency. In fact, CVID patients showed a decrease in Th17-cell frequency in parallel with the expansion of activated non-differentiated B cells (CD21(low)CD38(low)). Moreover, Congenital Agammaglobulinemia patients, lacking B cells due to impaired early B-cell development, had a severe reduction of circulating Th17 cells. Finally, we found a direct correlation in healthy individuals between circulating Th17-cell frequency and both switched-memory B cells and serum BAFF levels, a crucial cytokine for B-cell survival. Overall, our data support a relationship between Th17-cell homeostasis and B-cell maturation, with implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and the physiology of B-cell depleting therapies.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e22848. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD4(+) T cell lymphocytes are a major target for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. During this chronic infection, CD4(+) T cell loss (induced through direct viral replication), generalized immune activation and increased susceptibility to apoptosis result in impaired T cell homeostasis with subsequent development of opportunistic infections and cancers. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has a well-defined, beneficial effect on HIV-1-related clinical outcome; however, it does not lead to normalization of immune dysregulation. In order to boost both CD4(+) T cell restoration and HIV-1 specific immunity, immunotherapy with gamma-chain cytokines has been used in HIV-1-infected patients during concomitant HAART. In this review, we summarize the role of gamma-chain cytokines, especially interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7, in influencing T cell homeostasis and proliferation, and discuss how immunotherapy with these cytokines may be beneficial to reconstitute the T cell compartment in the context of HIV-1 infection. The intriguing results of two large trials evaluating the efficacy of IL-2 in restoring immune function during HIV-1 infection are also discussed. In addition, we consider the promises and caveats of the first phase I/II clinical trials with IL-7 in HIV-1-infected patients and the knowledge that is still lacking in the field of T cell reconstitution through gamma-chain cytokines.Journal of Internal Medicine 05/2010; 267(5):502-14. · 6.46 Impact Factor