Structural changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are necessary for cell migration during normal and pathologic tissue remodeling and neoplastic cell invasion. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors have been identified to be critical modulators of ECM composition and are thus, crucial in neoplastic cell progression, invasion and metastasis. Expression of MMP-2, -3, -9, -10, and -13 was investigated in human breast carcinomas (BCs) employing an indirect, biotin-streptavidin based, alkaline phosphatase conjugated immunocytochemical technique. Evaluation of the results was based on (a) the percent of neoplastically transformed cells/surrounding stroma that reacted positively and (b) a measure of staining intensity [graded from A (highest) to D (negative)]. The two forms of stromelysin, MMP-3 and -10, share 82% sequence homology, but exhibit differences in cellular synthesis and inducibility by cytokines and growth factors in vitro. Strong overall expression of MMP-3 and -10 was found in BCs, especially in the ECM adjacent to blood vessels. Positive immunoreactivity could be seen for these two MMPs in the ECM surrounding over 90% of the neoplastically transformed cells (++++), and the staining intensity was also the strongest possible (A). High intensity immunoreactivity (A,B) but focal was detected employing a MoAB targeted against the MMP-9 enzyme. No presence of MMP-2 or -13 could be established in the BC cases observed by us. Based on these results we propose that MMP-3 and -10 are implicated in the pathogenesis of BC, while MMP-9 is possibly involved in neo-angiogenic events also closely associated with growth and expansion of the neoplastically transformed cell mass, as well as metastasis of individual, extremely aggressive, expressing dedifferentiated cellular immunophenotype (IP) cell clones selected during the microevolution of the BC.
"It has been verified that overexpression of MMP-10 is implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. In particular, compared to other MMPs, MMP-10 has a relatively broad substrate specificity and has been demonstrated to degrade a variety of matrix and non-matrix components (Bodey et al., 2001). Besides mainly participating in tumor invasion and metastasis, MMP-10 were even found to inhibit cancer cell apoptosis (Maruta et al., 2010). "
"In vivo, MMP-3 is centrally involved in mammary gland development , and has been demonstrated to promote tumour initiation and formation in the tetracycline-regulated mouse mammary model [62,63]. IHC and ISH in vivo analysis has demonstrated MMP-3 in both the tumour and stroma cellular compartments of both invasive and non-invasive tumours, with the level of stromal expression increasing with tumourigenicity [59,64,65], and in the extracellular matrix adjacent to breast tumours . Our observation of MMP-3 gene expression in the stroma of four out of six of the xenografts examined, and in particular in the Hs578T xenograft, further support a role for this MMP in breast cancer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteases are required for the degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix in both normal and pathological conditions. In vitro, MT1-MMP (MMP-14, membrane type-1-MMP) expression is higher in more invasive human breast cancer (HBC) cell lines, whilst in vivo its expression has been associated with the stroma surrounding breast tumours. MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase) has been associated with MDA-MB-231 invasion in vitro, while MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) has been localised around invasive cells of breast tumours in vivo. As MMPs are not stored intracellularly, the ability to localise their expression to their cells of origin is difficult.
We utilised the unique in situ-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IS-RT-PCR) methodology to localise the in vitro and in vivo gene expression of MT1-MMP, MMP-1 and MMP-3 in human breast cancer. In vitro, MMP induction was examined in the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 HBC cell lines following exposure to Concanavalin A (Con A). In vivo, we examined their expression in archival paraffin embedded xenografts derived from a range of HBC cell lines of varied invasive and metastatic potential. Mouse xenografts are heterogenous, containing neoplastic human parenchyma with mouse stroma and vasculature and provide a reproducible in vivo model system correlated to the human disease state.
In vitro, exposure to Con A increased MT1-MMP gene expression in MDA-MB-231 cells and decreased MT1-MMP gene expression in MCF-7 cells. MMP-1 and MMP-3 gene expression remained unchanged in both cell lines. In vivo, stromal cells recruited into each xenograft demonstrated differences in localised levels of MMP gene expression. Specifically, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and Hs578T HBC cell lines are able to influence MMP gene expression in the surrounding stroma.
We have demonstrated the applicability and sensitivity of IS-RT-PCR for the examination of MMP gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Induction of MMP gene expression in both the epithelial tumour cells and surrounding stromal cells is associated with increased metastatic potential. Our data demonstrate the contribution of the stroma to epithelial MMP gene expression, and highlight the complexity of the role of MMPs in the stromal-epithelial interactions within breast carcinoma.
BMC Cancer 02/2006; 6(1):18. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-6-18 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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