Matrix metalloproteinases in neoplasm-induced extracellular matrix remodeling in breast carcinomas.
ABSTRACT Structural changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are necessary for cell migration during normal and pathologic tissue remodeling and neoplastic cell invasion. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors have been identified to be critical modulators of ECM composition and are thus, crucial in neoplastic cell progression, invasion and metastasis. Expression of MMP-2, -3, -9, -10, and -13 was investigated in human breast carcinomas (BCs) employing an indirect, biotin-streptavidin based, alkaline phosphatase conjugated immunocytochemical technique. Evaluation of the results was based on (a) the percent of neoplastically transformed cells/surrounding stroma that reacted positively and (b) a measure of staining intensity [graded from A (highest) to D (negative)]. The two forms of stromelysin, MMP-3 and -10, share 82% sequence homology, but exhibit differences in cellular synthesis and inducibility by cytokines and growth factors in vitro. Strong overall expression of MMP-3 and -10 was found in BCs, especially in the ECM adjacent to blood vessels. Positive immunoreactivity could be seen for these two MMPs in the ECM surrounding over 90% of the neoplastically transformed cells (++++), and the staining intensity was also the strongest possible (A). High intensity immunoreactivity (A,B) but focal was detected employing a MoAB targeted against the MMP-9 enzyme. No presence of MMP-2 or -13 could be established in the BC cases observed by us. Based on these results we propose that MMP-3 and -10 are implicated in the pathogenesis of BC, while MMP-9 is possibly involved in neo-angiogenic events also closely associated with growth and expansion of the neoplastically transformed cell mass, as well as metastasis of individual, extremely aggressive, expressing dedifferentiated cellular immunophenotype (IP) cell clones selected during the microevolution of the BC.
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ABSTRACT: Chrysin, a naturally occurring flavone, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in various cancers. However, the effect and mechanisms of chrysin on cancer metastasis are still enigmatic. In this study, metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines were used to evaluate the antimetastatic activity of chrysin. The results showed that chrysin (5, 10 and 20 μM) significantly suppressed TNBC cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) antibody array demonstrated that MMP-10 was downregulated by chrysin, which was further verified by Western blotting and ELISA. Moreover, it was shown that chrysin induced increased E-cadherin expression and decreased expression of vimentin, snail and slug in TNBC cells, suggesting that chrysin had a reversal effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition. More importantly, it was demonstrated that inhibiting the Akt signal pathway might play a central role in chrysin-induced antimetastatic activity by regulating MMP-10 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In conclusion, our study indicates that chrysin exerts antimetastatic activities in TNBC cells, which suggests that chrysin might be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Applied Toxicology 01/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1002/jat.2941 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Page numbers are not for citation purposes. Instead, this article has the unique article number of 18. Yes YesBMC Cancer · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alachlor induces olfactory mucosal tumors in rats in a highly ordered temporal process. We used GeneChip analysis to test the hypothesis that histological progression and oncogenic transformation are accompanied by gene expression changes that might yield clues as to the molecular pathogenesis of tumor formation. Acute alachlor exposure caused upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, carboxypeptidase Z, and other genes related to extracellular matrix homeostasis. Heme oxygenase was upregulated acutely and maintained elevated expression. Expression of ebnerin, related to the putative human tumor suppressor gene DMBT1, progressively increased in alachlor-treated olfactory mucosa. Progression from adenomas to adenocarcinoma was correlated with upregulation of genes in the wnt signaling pathway. Activated wnt signaling was confirmed by immunohistochemical localization of beta-catenin to nuclei of adenocarcinomas, but not earlier lesions. These observations suggest that initiation and progression of alachlor-induced olfactory mucosal tumors is associated with alterations in extracellular matrix components, induction of oxidative stress, upregulation of ebnerin, and final transformation to a malignant state by wnt pathway activation.Physiological Genomics 01/2003; 12(1):35-45. DOI:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00120.2002 · 2.81 Impact Factor