Effect of high retinoid doses on RAR-β mRNA expression in female B6D2F1 mice
Department of Nutrition Sciences, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294-3360, USA.Anticancer research (Impact Factor: 1.83). 01/2001; 21(3B):1691-5.
The expression of retinoid receptors is altered during the development of several types of cancer. In the present study, we determined the influence of high dietary concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) on RAR-beta mRNA expression in female mice. Expression of liver and lung RAR-beta RNA increased with increasing levels of dietary retinoid (both 4-HPR and 13-cis RA). Bladder RAR-beta mRNA levels, however, were significantly decreased in mice fed 13-cis RA or 4-HPR. These results suggest that feeding high levels of retinoids to mice results in tissue-specific elfects on expression of RAR-beta mRNA.
Article: Retinoids as chemopreventive agents[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Retinoids are promising agents for cancer chemoprevention. The myriad effects of retinoids on biological processes including development, differentiation, homeostasis, carcinogenesis and apoptosis are mediated through their molecular targets, the retinoid and rexinoid receptors. Tissue specific expression patterns, ligand specificities, receptor numbers, their distinct functions and functional redundancy make retinoid signaling highly complex. The cross-talks of these receptors with cell surface receptors signaling pathways, as well as their interactions with multiple co-activators and co-repressors further add to the complexity of the pleiotropic effects of retinoids. Elucidation of retinoid signaling pathways and indepth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the anti-proliferative and apoptotic action of retinoids has paved the way for designing synthetic retinoids for effective chemoprevention and therapy of cancer. Development of receptor selective synthetic retinoids is a major focus of molecular retinoid development. Other new avenues encompass identification of novel retinoid regulated genes, orphan-receptor ligands/functions, novel retinoid mechanisms involving receptor-independent apoptosis inducing activity and synergistic combinations with other agents for cancer prevention and therapy. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the action of retinoids and retinoid molecular targeting studies designed primarily to develop retinoids with reduced toxicity, while maintaining or enhancing activity in context of chemoprevention. The clinical efficacy of retinoid based chemoprevention trials is discussed.Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2003; 17(1):66-91. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide [4-HPR (or fenretinide)] has preclinical and clinical preventive activity in breast carcinogenesis. 4-HPR and its metabolites have been shown to accumulate in the mammary tissue of rodents. We assessed levels of 4-HPR and its major metabolite, N-(4-methoxyphenyl)retinamide (4-MPR), in plasma and in normal and neoplastic breast tissue obtained from women treated with 4-HPR. Experimental Design: We randomly assigned 14 women with suspected or very recently diagnosed breast cancer to receive 100, 200, or 300 mg of 4-HPR daily for 3-12 days before scheduled biopsy, lumpectomy, or mastectomy. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we measured post-4-HPR-treatment concentrations of 4-HPR and 4-MPR in plasma and breast tissue obtained during surgery. Breast tissue and plasma retinamide (4-HPR plus 4-MPR) concentrations increased significantly with short-term oral administration of 4-HPR. Retinamide levels increased in a linear and dose-related fashion in plasma, whereas they peaked and plateaued at 200 mg/day in breast tissue. The total retinamide concentration in breast tissue exceeded that in plasma at each 4-HPR dose. The highest mean tissue:plasma retinamide ratios were achieved at 200 mg/day: 639.5 +/- 253.8 to 190.6 +/- 91.9 ng/ml (4.8:1) for 4-HPR and 594.4 +/- 201.9 to 130.5 +/- 37.8 ng/ml (6.6:1) for 4-MPR. Plasma retinol levels decreased in association with increasing 4-HPR doses. Two patients experienced grade 1 toxicity at the 300 mg/day dose. These findings indicate that retinamides preferentially accumulate in human breast tissue (versus plasma). 4-HPR tissue concentrations at 200 mg/d were equivalent to those that inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro. Previous clinical and correlative laboratory results suggest that 4-HPR may reduce risk in premenopausal women, who are more prone (than are postmenopausal women) to estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer development. The present results and previous data (including in vitro 4-HPR activity against ER-negative breast cancer) support further study of 4-HPR in the setting of premenopausal/ER-negative breast cancer prevention.Clinical Cancer Research 08/2003; 9(7):2400-5. · 8.72 Impact Factor
Chapter: RetinoidsBurger's Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Discovery and Development, 09/2010; , ISBN: 9780471266945
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