Walker N, Garcia-Calleja JM, Heaton L, et al. Epidemiological analysis of the quality of HIV sero-surveillance in the world: how well do we track the epidemic
ABSTRACT The objective of this paper was to analyse the quality of HIV/AIDS sentinel surveillance systems in countries and the resulting quality of the data used to make estimates of HIV/AIDS prevalence and mortality.
Available data on sero-surveillance of HIV/AIDS in countries were compiled in the process of making the end of 1999 estimates of HIV/AIDS. These data came primarily from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Database developed by the United States Census Bureau, from a database maintained by the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS and all country reports on sentinel surveillance that had been provided to World Health Organization or UNAIDS. Procedures were developed to score quality of surveillance systems based on four dimensions of quality: timeliness and frequency; appropriateness of groups; consistency of sites over time; and coverage provided by the system. In total, the surveillance systems from 167 countries were analysed.
Forty-seven of the 167 countries whose surveillance systems were rated were judged to have fully implemented sentinel surveillance systems; 51 were judged to have systems that had some or most aspects of a good HIV surveillance system in place and 69 were rated as having poorly functioning or non-existent surveillance systems.
This analysis suggests that the quality of HIV surveillance varies considerably. The majority of countries most affected by HIV/AIDS have systems that are providing sufficient sero-prevalence data for tracking the epidemic and making reasonable estimates of HIV prevalence. However, many countries have poor systems and strengthening these is an urgent priority.
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- "Precision is influenced by sample size, the chosen confidence level and data completeness and correctness Safdar et al. (2008) Repeatability How consistently the study results can be reproduced over time. Walker et al. (2001) Representativeness Extent to which features of the population of interest are reflected in the surveillance data that are collected. Features may include herd size, herd type (e.g. "
ABSTRACT: Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain.Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 02/2013; 62(1). DOI:10.1111/tbed.12063 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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- "First, a more deliberate attempt should be made to support surveillance in countries and areas affected by conflict so that a better evidence base is developed. Unfortunately, a review of the UNAIDS surveillance database revealed that conflict-affected countries have little or no systematic surveillance, despite the existence of relatively stable areas . This may be due to the fact that lab testing and quality control for HIV surveillance is generally centralized. "
ABSTRACT: In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and violent conflict interact to shape population health and development in dramatic ways. HIV/AIDS can create conditions conducive to conflict. Conflict can affect the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Conflict is generally understood to accelerate HIV transmission, but this view is simplistic and disregards complex interrelationships between factors that can inhibit and accelerate the spread of HIV in conflict and post conflict settings, respectively. This paper provides a framework for understanding these factors and discusses their implications for policy formulation and program planning in conflict-affected settings.Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 11/2004; 1(1):6. DOI:10.1186/1742-7622-1-6 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tesis Univ. Granada. Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológico. Leída el 19 de diciembre de 2005