Pathological alterations induced by neuwiedase, a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops neuwiedi snake venom
ABSTRACT The pathological alterations induced by neuwiedase, a 22 kDa class P-I metalloproteinase from the venom of the South American pit viper Bothrops neuwiedi, were studied in mice. Neuwiedase was devoid of hemorrhagic activity when tested in the skin up to a dose of 200 microgram, and also after intramuscular injection in the gastrocnemius. However, it induced bleeding when applied onto the mouse cremaster muscle in intravital microscopy experiments, and caused pulmonary hemorrhage when injected intravenously at doses higher than 5 microgram/g. Median lethal dose (LD(50)) by the intravenous route was 5 microgram/g, whereas LD(50) of crude venom was 0.47 microgram/g. After intramuscular injection, neuwiedase induced a mild myotoxic effect, evidenced histologically and by the increment in plasma creatine kinase activity, but it was devoid of hemorrhagic and thrombotic effects. In contrast, crude B. neuwiedi venom induced prominent hemorrhage and myonecrosis in gastrocnemius muscle. Both venom and neuwiedase induced an inflammatory reaction in muscle tissue characterized by abundant polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Moreover, a conspicuous edema developed in the foot pad after subcutaneous injection of neuwiedase. Anti-neuwiedase antibodies produced in rabbits were effective in the neutralization of hemorrhagic activity of crude venom, evidencing immunological cross-reactivity between neuwiedase and other hemorrhagic metalloproteinases present in the venom, and suggesting that metalloproteinases devoid of, or having low, hemorrhagic activity could be good immunogens to generate antibodies effective against high molecular mass metalloproteinasas having potent hemorrhagic activity. It is concluded that neuwiedase, despite its lack of hemorrhagic effect when injected in the gastrocnemius muscle, contributes to local tissue damage by inducing edema, inflammatory infiltrate and mild myotoxicity, and by degrading extracellular matrix components. In addition, large doses of neuwiedase may contribute to pulmonary bleeding
- SourceAvailable from: Marcelo Emílio Beletti
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- "Myotoxic activity was assayed as described by Rodrigues et al. , with slight modifications. Groups of four mice were injected i.m. in the right gastrocnemius muscle with BmooMPα-II (50 μg/50 μL saline) or B. moojeni crude venom (50 μg/50 μL saline). "
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the proteolytic and biological activities of a new metalloproteinase from B. moojeni venom. The purification of BmooMP α -II was carried out through two chromatographic steps (ion-exchange and affinity). BmooMP α -II is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 22.5 kDa on SDS-PAGE 14% under nonreducing conditions. The N-terminal sequence (FSPRYIELVVVADHGMFTKYKSNLN) revealed homology with other snake venom metalloproteinases, mainly among P-I class. BmooMP α -II cleaves A α -chain of fibrinogen followed by B β -chain, and does not show any effect on the γ -chain. Its optimum temperature and pH for the fibrinogenolytic activity were 30-50°C and pH 8, respectively. The inhibitory effects of EDTA and 1,10-phenantroline on the fibrinogenolytic activity suggest that BmooMP α -II is a metalloproteinase. This proteinase was devoid of haemorrhagic, coagulant, or anticoagulant activities. BmooMP α -II caused morphological alterations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle of Swiss mice. The enzymatically active protein yet inhibited collagen, ADP, and ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that BmooMP α -II contributes to the toxic effect of the envenomation and that more investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of inhibition of platelet aggregation may contribute to the studies of snake venom on thrombotic disorders.BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:352420. DOI:10.1155/2014/352420 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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- "A possible mechanism is that the phospholipase distorted cell membrane and thus contribute to the takeoff of the cell monolayer, however it demands further investigation. On the contrary, other authors have demonstrated an ineffective neutralization of the myotoxic activity of B. pauloensis neuwiedi venom by blocking the metalloproteinases (Rodrigues et al., 2001). However, it was expected due to the fact that this venom induced myonecrosis by basic and myotoxic PLA 2 s (Soares et al., 2000). "
ABSTRACT: Acute muscle damage, myonecrosis, is one of the main characteristics of envenoming by Bothrops genus. In this in vitro study we investigated the role of a metalloproteinase (baltergin) and an acidic phospholipase A2 (Ba SPII RP4) in the cytotoxicity exhibited by Bothrops alternatus venom. Baltergin metalloproteinase purified from the venom exerted a toxic effect on C2C12 myoblast cells (CC50: 583.34 μg/mL) which involved morphological alterations compatible with apoptosis/anoikis. On the contrary, the most abundant PLA2 isolated from this venom did not exhibit cytotoxicity at times and doses tested. However, when myoblasts were treated with both enzymes together, synergic activity was demonstrated. Neutralization of the venom with specific antibodies (IgG anti-baltergin and IgG anti-PLA2) confirmed this synergism.Toxicon 11/2011; 59(2):338-43. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.11.007 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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- "resulting blocks were sliced in 2.5 mm thick sections, stained with 0.25% (w/v) hematoxylin–eosin and examined under a light microscope (Rodrigues et al., 2001). "
ABSTRACT: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, EC 22.214.171.124), a major component of snake venoms, specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of fatty acid ester bonds at position 2 of 1,2-diacyl-sn-3-phosphoglycerides in the presence of calcium. This article reports the purification and biochemical/functional characterization of BmooTX-I, a new myotoxic acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. The purification of the enzyme was carried out through three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on DEAE-Sepharose, molecular exclusion on Sephadex G-75 and hydrophobic chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose). BmooTX-I was found to be a single-chain protein of 15,000 Da and pI 4.2. The N-terminal sequence revealed a high homology with other acidic Asp49 PLA2s from Bothrops snake venoms. It displayed a high phospholipase activity and platelet aggregation inhibition induced by collagen or ADP. Edema and myotoxicity in vivo were also induced by BmooTX-I. Analysis of myotoxic activity was carried out by optical and ultrastructural microscopy, demonstrating high levels of leukocytary infiltrate. Previous treatment of BmooTX-I with BPB reduced its enzymatic and myotoxic activities, as well as the effect on platelet aggregation. Acidic myotoxic PLA2s from Bothrops snake venoms have been little explored and the knowledge of its structural and functional features will be able to contribute for a better understanding of their action mechanism regarding enzymatic and toxic activities.Toxicon 10/2008; 52(8):908-17. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.08.020 · 2.49 Impact Factor