Pathological alterations induced by neuwiedase, a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops neuwiedi snake venom.
ABSTRACT The pathological alterations induced by neuwiedase, a 22 kDa class P-I metalloproteinase from the venom of the South American pit viper Bothrops neuwiedi, were studied in mice. Neuwiedase was devoid of hemorrhagic activity when tested in the skin up to a dose of 200 microgram, and also after intramuscular injection in the gastrocnemius. However, it induced bleeding when applied onto the mouse cremaster muscle in intravital microscopy experiments, and caused pulmonary hemorrhage when injected intravenously at doses higher than 5 microgram/g. Median lethal dose (LD(50)) by the intravenous route was 5 microgram/g, whereas LD(50) of crude venom was 0.47 microgram/g. After intramuscular injection, neuwiedase induced a mild myotoxic effect, evidenced histologically and by the increment in plasma creatine kinase activity, but it was devoid of hemorrhagic and thrombotic effects. In contrast, crude B. neuwiedi venom induced prominent hemorrhage and myonecrosis in gastrocnemius muscle. Both venom and neuwiedase induced an inflammatory reaction in muscle tissue characterized by abundant polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Moreover, a conspicuous edema developed in the foot pad after subcutaneous injection of neuwiedase. Anti-neuwiedase antibodies produced in rabbits were effective in the neutralization of hemorrhagic activity of crude venom, evidencing immunological cross-reactivity between neuwiedase and other hemorrhagic metalloproteinases present in the venom, and suggesting that metalloproteinases devoid of, or having low, hemorrhagic activity could be good immunogens to generate antibodies effective against high molecular mass metalloproteinasas having potent hemorrhagic activity. It is concluded that neuwiedase, despite its lack of hemorrhagic effect when injected in the gastrocnemius muscle, contributes to local tissue damage by inducing edema, inflammatory infiltrate and mild myotoxicity, and by degrading extracellular matrix components. In addition, large doses of neuwiedase may contribute to pulmonary bleeding
- SourceAvailable from: Marcelo Emílio Beletti[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the proteolytic and biological activities of a new metalloproteinase from B. moojeni venom. The purification of BmooMP α -II was carried out through two chromatographic steps (ion-exchange and affinity). BmooMP α -II is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 22.5 kDa on SDS-PAGE 14% under nonreducing conditions. The N-terminal sequence (FSPRYIELVVVADHGMFTKYKSNLN) revealed homology with other snake venom metalloproteinases, mainly among P-I class. BmooMP α -II cleaves A α -chain of fibrinogen followed by B β -chain, and does not show any effect on the γ -chain. Its optimum temperature and pH for the fibrinogenolytic activity were 30-50°C and pH 8, respectively. The inhibitory effects of EDTA and 1,10-phenantroline on the fibrinogenolytic activity suggest that BmooMP α -II is a metalloproteinase. This proteinase was devoid of haemorrhagic, coagulant, or anticoagulant activities. BmooMP α -II caused morphological alterations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle of Swiss mice. The enzymatically active protein yet inhibited collagen, ADP, and ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that BmooMP α -II contributes to the toxic effect of the envenomation and that more investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of inhibition of platelet aggregation may contribute to the studies of snake venom on thrombotic disorders.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:352420. · 2.88 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Researchers trying to improve the safety and efficacy of fibrinolytic therapy have been isolating fibrinolytic enzymes from snake venoms. Two fibrinolytic enzymes, colombienases 1 and 2, with significant activity have been isolated from the venom of Bothrops colombiensis. The colombienases were characterized for various biological activites which include hemorragic, fibrinogenolytic, proteolytic, hemolytic, edematogenic and cytotoxic. Colombienases directly acted on fibrin by degrading fibrinogen Aα and Bβ chains without activating the fibrinolytic system (plasminogen/plasmin), additionally colombienase-2 degraded fibrinogen γ chains as well as the fibronectin molecule. Laminin and type IV collagen were colombienases resistant. Gelatin-zymogram activity was present in B. colombiensis venom (BcV) bands between 64 and 148 kDa. All activities were abolished by metalloproteinases inhibitors. Both enzymes lacked hemorrhagic, hemolytic, cytotoxic, plasminogen activator and coagulant activities. Both colombienases had direct fibrino(geno)lytic activity without other toxic side effects including in vivo hemorraghing, which could be promising in terms of therapeutic potential as thrombolytic agents.Toxicon 08/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In various types of snake venom, the major toxic components are proteinases and members of the phospholipase A2 family, although other enzymes also contribute to the toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the proteolytic, phospholipase, and L-amino acid oxidase activities in the venom of five Bothrops species-B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni, B. neuwiedi, and B. alternatus-all of which are used in the production of commercial antivenom, prepared in horses. The enzymatic activities of each species' venom were classified as high, moderate, or low. B. moojeni venom demonstrated the highest enzymatic activity profile, followed by the venom of B. neuwiedi, B. jararacussu, B. jararaca, and B. alternatus. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare all of these enzymes from multiple species, which is significant in view of the activity of L-amino acid oxidase across Bothrops species.Toxicon 08/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor