Glucagon attenuates the action of insulin on glucose output in the liver of the Goto-Kakizaki rat perfused in situ.
ABSTRACT The effects of glucagon and insulin on glucose production were explored directly using the isolated perfused liver of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, an animal model of type-2 diabetes. In the perfused liver of control rats, infusion of glucagon (0.06-1.0 nM) into the portal vein dose-dependently increased glucose output. In the GK rat liver, in which the intracellular distribution of glycogen was heterogeneous, basal glucose output during perfusion was significantly higher than in control, whereas the effect of glucagon on the maximum glucose output was not different. Infusion of insulin inhibited the glucagon-induced hepatic glucose output by 30-40% in control livers, but had no effect on that from the GK rat liver. The increase in hepatic cAMP content after glucagon infusion was antagonized by insulin in control livers, but not in the livers of GK rats. These results indicate that the antagonistic effect of insulin on glucagon-induced hepatic glucose production was attenuated in the isolated liver of the GK rat and suggest that this insulin resistance appeared in the signal transduction process of glucagon upstream from cAMP production.