Disposition of naproxen, naproxen acyl glucuronide and its rearrangement isomers in the isolated perfused rat liver.
ABSTRACT 1. An isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) preparation was used to investigate separately the disposition of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen (NAP), its reactive acyl glucuronide metabolite (NAG) and a mixture of NAG rearrangement isomers (isoNAG), each at 30 microg NAP equivalents ml perfusate (n = 4 each group). 2. Following administration to the IPRL, NAP was eliminated slowly in a log-linear manner with an apparent elimination half-life (t 1/2) of 13.4 +/- 4.4h. No metabolites were detected in perfusate, while NAG was the only metablolite present in bile in measurable amounts (3.9 +/- 0.8% of the dose). Following their administration to the IPRL, both NAG and isoNAG were rapidly hydrolysed (t 1/2 in perfusate = 57 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 14 min respectively). NAG also rearranged to isoNAG in the perfusate. Both NAG and isoNAG were excreted intact in bile (24.6 and 14.8% of the NAG and isoNAG doses, respectively). 3. Covalent NAP-protein adducts in the liver increased as the dose changed from NAP to NAG to isoNAG (0.20 to 0.34 to 0.48% of the doses, respectively). Similarly, formation of covalent NAP-protein adducts in perfusate were greater in isoNAG-dosed perfusions. The comparative results suggest that isoNAG is a better substrate for adduct formation with liver proteins than NAG.
- SourceAvailable from: Mustafa Sinan Kaynak[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Naproxen sodium (NAS) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used for the reduction of moderate to severe aches and pains. This study presents a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of in-vitro solubility of NAS. Chromatographic separation of NAS was achieved on a reversed-phase column (Waters Spherisorb S10 ODS2 C18 200x4.6 mm column) with the mobile phase consisted of 0.05M phosphate buffer (pH 4.0), methanol and acetonitrile (50:20:30 v/v), at a flow rate 1 mL.min-1. Chromatographic detection of NAS was performed at 230 nm with UV detector system. The retention time was about 7 min. Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 5-150 μg.mL-1. The limit of quantitation was found to be 78 ng.mL-1. The intra- and inter-day precision relative standard deviation was 3.7% or less, and the accuracy was within 5.4% deviation of the nominal concentration. The proposed HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of NAS solubility.Hacettepe University Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy 01/2008; 28(1):49-62.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to provide a scientifically based perspective on issues surrounding the proposed toxicology testing of synthetic drug metabolites as a means of ensuring adequate nonclinical safety evaluation of drug candidates that generate metabolites considered either to be unique to humans or are present at much higher levels in humans than in preclinical species. We put forward a number of theoretical considerations and present several specific examples where the kinetic behavior of a preformed metabolite given to animals or humans differs from that of the corresponding metabolite generated endogenously from its parent. The potential ramifications of this phenomenon are that the results of toxicity testing of the preformed metabolite may be misleading and fail to characterize the true toxicological contribution of the metabolite when formed from the parent. It is anticipated that such complications would be evident in situations where (a) differences exist in the accumulation of the preformed versus generated metabolites in specific tissues, and (b) the metabolite undergoes sequential metabolism to a downstream product that is toxic, leading to differences in tissue-specific toxicity. Owing to the complex nature of this subject, there is a need to treat drug metabolite issues in safety assessment on a case-by-case basis, in which a knowledge of metabolite kinetics is employed to validate experimental paradigms that entail administration of preformed metabolites to animal models.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2007; 217(2):143-52. · 3.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the hepatic metabolism and transport system of valerenic acid, a main active constituent of valerian, in isolated perfused livers from Wistar and Mrp2-deficient TR(-) rats. After administration of 20 microM valerenic acid, the formation of seven valerenic acid glucuronides (M1-M7), namely two glucuronides of valerenic acid (M6, M7), four glucuronides of hydroxylated valerenic acid (M1, M3, M4, M5), and one glucuronide of hydroxylated dehydro-valerenic acid (M2) in bile and perfusate was quantified by HPLC. The hepatic extraction ratio and clearance of valerenic acid were very high in Wistar and TR(-) rats (E: 0.983 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.981 +/- 0.004; Cl: 35.4 +/- 0.21 mL/min vs. 35.3 +/- 0.14 mL/min). However, biliary excretion and efflux of conjugates differed greatly in TR(-) rats. While cumulative biliary excretion of unconjugated valerenic acid and the glucuronides M1-M7 dropped dramatically to 1-9%, their efflux into perfusate increased 1.5- to 10-fold. This indicates that valerenic acid and its glucuronides are eliminated into bile by Mrp2. In summary, valerenic acid was metabolized to several conjugates, whereby the canalicular transporter Mrp2 mediated biliary excretion of the parent drug and its glucuronides.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 02/2009; 98(10):3839-49. · 3.13 Impact Factor