Disposition of naproxen, naproxen acyl glucuronide and its rearrangement isomers in the isolated perfused rat liver
Centre for Studies in Drug Disposition, The University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Australia.Xenobiotica (Impact Factor: 2.2). 07/2001; 31(6):309-19. DOI: 10.1080/00498250110052715
1. An isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) preparation was used to investigate separately the disposition of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen (NAP), its reactive acyl glucuronide metabolite (NAG) and a mixture of NAG rearrangement isomers (isoNAG), each at 30 microg NAP equivalents ml perfusate (n = 4 each group). 2. Following administration to the IPRL, NAP was eliminated slowly in a log-linear manner with an apparent elimination half-life (t 1/2) of 13.4 +/- 4.4h. No metabolites were detected in perfusate, while NAG was the only metablolite present in bile in measurable amounts (3.9 +/- 0.8% of the dose). Following their administration to the IPRL, both NAG and isoNAG were rapidly hydrolysed (t 1/2 in perfusate = 57 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 14 min respectively). NAG also rearranged to isoNAG in the perfusate. Both NAG and isoNAG were excreted intact in bile (24.6 and 14.8% of the NAG and isoNAG doses, respectively). 3. Covalent NAP-protein adducts in the liver increased as the dose changed from NAP to NAG to isoNAG (0.20 to 0.34 to 0.48% of the doses, respectively). Similarly, formation of covalent NAP-protein adducts in perfusate were greater in isoNAG-dosed perfusions. The comparative results suggest that isoNAG is a better substrate for adduct formation with liver proteins than NAG.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rimadyl (carprofen) was administered orally to the racing greyhound at a dose of 2.2 mg kg(-1). Following both alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis, postadministration urine samples were extracted by mixed mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges to identify target analyte(s) for forensic screening and confirmatory analysis methods. The acidic isolates were derivatised as trimethylsilyl ethers (TMS) and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carprofen and five phase I metabolites were identified. Positive ion electron ionisation (EI(+)) mass spectra of the TMS derivatives of carprofen and its metabolites show a diagnostic base peak at M(+)*. -117 corresponding to the loss of COO-Si-(CH(3))(3) group as a radical. GC-MS with positive ion ammonia chemical ionisation (CI(+)) of the compounds provided both derivatised molecular mass and some structural information. Deutromethylation-TMS derivatisation was used to distinguish between aromatic and aliphatic oxidations of carprofen. The drug is rapidly absorbed, extensively metabolised and excreted as phase II conjugates in urine. Carprofen, three aromatic hydroxy and a minor N-hydroxy metabolite were detected for up to 48 h. For samples collected between 2 and 8 h after administration, the concentration of total carprofen ranged between 200 and 490 ng ml(-1). The major metabolite, alpha-hydroxycarprofen was detected for over 72 h and therefore can also be used as a marker for the forensic screening of carprofen in greyhound urine.Journal of Chromatography B 06/2003; 788(2):297-307. DOI:10.1016/S1570-0232(03)00035-7 · 2.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 was used to catalyze the biotransformation of S(-)-naproxen (1) to three major metabolites that were isolated by solvent extraction, purified chromatographically, and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Metabolites were identified as O-desmethylnaproxen (2), 7-hydroxynaproxen (3) and 7-hydroxy-O-desmethyinaproxen (4). The kinetics of naproxen biotransformation to 2 and 4 was established over an 84 h period to show that naproxen was completely metabolized at 36 h, the major metabolite was O-desmethylnaproxen at 24 h, and the 7-hydroxy-O-desmethylnaproxen that was formed after 24 h.Pharmazie 09/2003; 58(6):420-2. DOI:10.1002/chin.200339085 · 1.05 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A number of therapeutic drugs with different structures and mechanisms of action have been reported to undergo metabolic activation by Phase I or Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. The bioactivation gives rise to reactive metabolites/intermediates, which readily confer covalent binding to various target proteins by nucleophilic substitution and/or Schiff's base mechanism. These drugs include analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen), antibacterial agents (e.g., sulfonamides and macrolide antibiotics), anticancer drugs (e.g., irinotecan), antiepileptic drugs (e.g., carbamazepine), anti-HIV agents (e.g., ritonavir), antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine), cardiovascular drugs (e.g., procainamide and hydralazine), immunosupressants (e.g., cyclosporine A), inhalational anesthetics (e.g., halothane), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDSs) (e.g., diclofenac), and steroids and their receptor modulators (e.g., estrogens and tamoxifen). Some herbal and dietary constituents are also bioactivated to reactive metabolites capable of binding covalently and inactivating cytochrome P450s (CYPs). A number of important target proteins of drugs have been identified by mass spectrometric techniques and proteomic approaches. The covalent binding and formation of drug-protein adducts are generally considered to be related to drug toxicity, and selective protein covalent binding by drug metabolites may lead to selective organ toxicity. However, the mechanisms involved in the protein adduct-induced toxicity are largely undefined, although it has been suggested that drug-protein adducts may cause toxicity either through impairing physiological functions of the modified proteins or through immune-mediated mechanisms. In addition, mechanism-based inhibition of CYPs may result in toxic drug-drug interactions. The clinical consequences of drug bioactivation and covalent binding to proteins are unpredictable, depending on many factors that are associated with the administered drugs and patients. Further studies using proteomic and genomic approaches with high throughput capacity are needed to identify the protein targets of reactive drug metabolites, and to elucidate the structure-activity relationships of drug's covalent binding to proteins and their clinical outcomes.Drug Metabolism Reviews 02/2005; 37(1):41-213. DOI:10.1081/DMR-200028812 · 5.36 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.