Article

Some clinical factors related to rate of resorption of residual ridges. 1962.

Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry (Impact Factor: 1.42). 09/2001; 86(2):119-25.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to conduct a clinical, radiographic, and histologic follow-up of alveolar socket healing in 8 human cases in which the extraction sockets of the involved teeth were treated with biodegradable root replicas before metallic implants were placed.Study designChair side prepared solid and porous forms of root replicas made out of polylactic-polyglycolic acids (PLGA) copolymer were utilized. Five patients were treated with the solid form and 3 with the porous form of the replicas. The cases were followed up at regular intervals postoperatively, and standardized photographs and radiographs were taken. The cylindrical core of biopsies that were removed with trephine for placement of titanium implants were processed and examined by light and transmission-electron microscopy.ResultsBoth forms of the root replicas were well tolerated and biodegraded by the body. There were no histologically observable pathological tissue reactions at the time of implant application. However, the solid form seemed to cause an initial decalcification of the bone surrounding the extraction sockets that was subsequently repaired along with the bone healing of the extraction sockets. Such initial decalcification of the alveolar process was not observed in the cases that were treated with the porous form of root replicas. There was wide variation in the osseous component of the trephine-harvested biopsies in both treatment groups that suggests inconsistency in bone healing of the alveolar sockets.Conclusion The 2 forms of root replicas under investigation were found to be biocompatible and biodegradable. But the compact solid form may cause an initial temporary lactic acid induced decalcification of the alveolar process, which makes it unsuitable for regular clinical application as compared to the granular porous form. The observed inconsistent and unpredictable bone regeneration calls for further research to develop more optimal replica materials.
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    ABSTRACT: Healing of the extraction socket after tooth removal involves retention of the blood clot followed by a sequence of events that lead to changes in the alveolar process in a three dimensional fashion. This normal healing event results in a minimal loss of vertical height (around 1 mm), but a substantial loss of width in the buccal-lingual plane (4-6 mm). During the first three months following extraction that loss has been shown to be significant and may result in both a hard tissue and soft tissue deformity affecting the ability to restore the site with acceptable esthetics. Procedures that reduce the resorptive process have been shown to be predictable and potentially capable of eliminating secondary surgery for site preparation when implant therapy is planned. The key element is prior planning by the dental therapist to act at the time of extraction to prevent the collapse of the ridge due to the loss of the alveolus. Several techniques have been employed as ridge preservation procedures involving the use of bone grafts, barrier membranes and biologics to provide a better restorative outcome. This review will explore the evidence behind each technique and their efficacy in accomplishing site preparation. The literature does not identify a single technique as superior to others; however, all accepted therapeutic procedures for ridge preservation have been shown to be more effective than blood clot alone in randomized controlled studies.
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