Protein kinase D potentiates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation induced by bombesin, vasopressin, or phorbol esters in Swiss 3T3 cells.
ABSTRACT We examined whether protein kinase D (PKD) overexpression in Swiss 3T3 cells potentiates the proliferative response to either the G protein-coupled receptor agonists bombesin and vasopressin or the biologically active phorbol ester phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). In order to generate Swiss 3T3 cells stably overexpressing PKD, cultures of these cells were infected with retrovirus encoding murine PKD and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed as two separate proteins translated from the same mRNA. GFP was used as a marker for selection of PKD-positive cells. PKD overexpressed in Swiss 3T3 cells was dramatically activated by cell treatment with bombesin or PDBu as judged by in vitro kinase autophosphorylation assays and exogenous substrate phosphorylation. Concomitantly, these stimuli induced PKD phosphorylation at Ser(744), Ser(748), and Ser(916). PKD activation and phosphorylation were prevented by exposure of the cells to protein kinase C-specific inhibitors. Addition of bombesin, vasopressin, or PDBu to cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells overexpressing PKD induced a striking increase in DNA synthesis and cell number compared with cultures of Swiss 3T3-GFP cells. In contrast, stimulation of DNA synthesis in response to epidermal growth factor, which acts via protein kinase C/PKD-independent pathways, was not enhanced. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of PKD selectively potentiates mitogenesis induced by bombesin, vasopressin, or PDBu in Swiss 3T3 cells.
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ABSTRACT: We examined whether protein kinase D1 (PKD1) mediates negative feeback of PI3K/Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. Exposure of intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells to increasing concentrations of the PKD family inhibitor kb NB 142-70, at concentrations that inhibited PKD1 activation, strikingly potentiated Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308) and Ser(473) in response to the mitogenic GPCR agonist angiotensin II (ANG II). Enhancement of Akt activation by kb NB 142-70 was also evident in cells with other GPCR agonists, including vasopressin and lysophosphatidic acid. Cell treatment rovincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China with the structurally unrelated PKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 increased Akt phosphorylation as potently as kb NB 142-70. Knockdown of PKD1 with two different siRNAs strikingly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in response to ANG II stimulation in IEC-18 cells. To determine whether treatment with kb NB 142-70 enhances accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) in the plasma membrane, we monitored the redistribution of Akt-pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein (Akt-PH-GFP) in single IEC-18 cells. Exposure to kb NB 142-70 strikingly increased membrane accumulation of Akt-PH-GFP in response to ANG II. The translocation of the PIP3 sensor to the plasma membrane and the phosphorylation of Akt was completed prevented by prior exposure to the class I p110α specific inhibitor A66. ANG II markedly increased the phosphorylation of p85α detected by a PKD motif-specific antibody and enhanced the association of p85α with PTEN. Transgenic mice overexpressing PKD1 showed a reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in intestinal epithelial cells compared to wild type littermates. Collectively these results indicate that PKD1 activation mediates feedback inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo.PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73149. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073149 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a major pathophysiological mediator of degenerative processes in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Aberrant cell signaling governed by protein phosphorylation has been linked to oxidative damage of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Although several studies have associated activation of certain protein kinases with apoptotic cell death in PD, very little is known about protein kinase regulation of cell survival and protection against oxidative damage and degeneration in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we characterized the PKD1-mediated protective pathway against oxidative damage in cell culture models of PD. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) was used to induce oxidative stress in the N27 dopaminergic cell model and in primary mesencephalic neurons. Our results indicated that 6-OHDA induced the PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/S748) phosphorylation during early stages of oxidative stress and that PKD1 activation preceded cell death. We also found that 6-OHDA rapidly increased phosphorylation of the C-terminal S916 in PKD1, which is required for PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/748) phosphorylation. Interestingly, negative modulation of PKD1 activation by RNAi knockdown or by the pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 by kbNB-14270 augmented 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, while positive modulation of PKD1 by the overexpression of full length PKD1 (PKD1WT) or constitutively active PKD1 (PKD1S744E/S748E) attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic role for PKD1 during oxidative neuronal injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PKD1 signaling plays a cell survival role during early stages of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons and therefore, positive modulation of the PKD1-mediated signal transduction pathway can provide a novel neuroprotective strategy against PD.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96947. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096947 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the two characteristic types of primary aldosteronism. Dysregulation of adrenal cortical cell proliferation contributes to both diseases. We previously demonstrated that APA tissues express less dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) than the respective non-tumor tissue; this contributes to the overproduction of aldosterone. In this study, we demonstrate that D2R plays a role in the regulation of angiotensin II (AII)-stimulated adrenal cortical cell proliferation. The D2R agonist, bromocriptine, inhibited AII-stimulated cell proliferation in primary cultures of the normal human adrenal cortex and APA. D2R activation attenuated AII-induced PKCμ activation; depletion of PKCμ significantly decreased AII-stimulated cyclin D1 protein expression and cell proliferation. D2R activation also inhibited AII-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Because the less D2R level in APA, less inhibiting effect of D2R on AII signaling made the level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in APA be significantly greater than and the normal adrenal cortex. Our results demonstrate that in addition to inhibiting aldosterone synthesis/production, D2R also exerts an anti-proliferative effect in adrenal cortical and APA cells by attenuating PKCµ and ERK phosphorylation under AII stimulation. Our novel finding suggests a new therapeutic target for primary aldosteronism.Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 11/2013; DOI:10.1530/JME-13-0044 · 3.62 Impact Factor