Protein kinase D potentiates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation induced by bombesin, vasopressin, or phorbol esters in Swiss 3T3 cells.
ABSTRACT We examined whether protein kinase D (PKD) overexpression in Swiss 3T3 cells potentiates the proliferative response to either the G protein-coupled receptor agonists bombesin and vasopressin or the biologically active phorbol ester phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). In order to generate Swiss 3T3 cells stably overexpressing PKD, cultures of these cells were infected with retrovirus encoding murine PKD and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed as two separate proteins translated from the same mRNA. GFP was used as a marker for selection of PKD-positive cells. PKD overexpressed in Swiss 3T3 cells was dramatically activated by cell treatment with bombesin or PDBu as judged by in vitro kinase autophosphorylation assays and exogenous substrate phosphorylation. Concomitantly, these stimuli induced PKD phosphorylation at Ser(744), Ser(748), and Ser(916). PKD activation and phosphorylation were prevented by exposure of the cells to protein kinase C-specific inhibitors. Addition of bombesin, vasopressin, or PDBu to cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells overexpressing PKD induced a striking increase in DNA synthesis and cell number compared with cultures of Swiss 3T3-GFP cells. In contrast, stimulation of DNA synthesis in response to epidermal growth factor, which acts via protein kinase C/PKD-independent pathways, was not enhanced. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of PKD selectively potentiates mitogenesis induced by bombesin, vasopressin, or PDBu in Swiss 3T3 cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Jean-Marc Ricort[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is a key protein in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling whose tyrosine phosphorylation by the type 1 IGF receptor is necessary for the recruitment and activation of the downstream effectors. Through the analysis of cross-talks occurring between different tyrosine kinase receptor-dependent signaling pathways, we investigated how two growth factors [epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)] could modulate the IGF-I-induced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and its downstream signaling. EGF and FGF inhibited IGF-I-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and the subsequent IGF-I-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity. These EGF- and FGF-inhibitory effects were dependent on both PI 3-kinase and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) signaling pathways but independent on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. PKD1, which was activated independently of the PI 3-kinase pathway, associated with IRS-1 in response to EGF or FGF. Unlike PI 3-kinase, PKD1 did not mediate the EGF- or FGF-induced-IRS-1 serine 307 phosphorylation which was described to inhibit IRS-1. Interestingly, specific inhibition of either PI 3-kinase or PKD1 totally impaired EGF- or FGF-induced inhibition of IGF-I-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. This indicated that serine 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 is not sufficient per se to inhibit the IGF signaling pathway and demonstrated for the first time that the negative regulation of IRS-1 requires the coordinated action of PI 3-kinase and PKD1. This further suggests that PKD1 may be an attractive target for innovative strategies that target the IGF signaling pathway.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2012; 1823(2):558-69. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.12.007 · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD), a serine/threonine kinase implicated in various cell processes, is upregulated in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), supporting a possible tumorigenic role for PKD in skin. As the greatest risk factor for BCC is sun exposure, the ability of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation to activate PKD in primary mouse keratinocytes was investigated. Using western analysis with two autophosphorylation-specific antibodies, we show for the first time that UVB activated PKD in a time- and dose-dependent manner. UVB-induced PKD activation was verified using an in vitro kinase assay. Furthermore, activation was reduced by antioxidant pretreatment, suggesting a link with oxidative stress. UVB-induced PKD activation was mediated primarily by Src family tyrosine kinases rather than protein kinase C (PKC), and in fact, UVB did not alter PKC-mediated transphosphorylation. UVB induced apoptosis dose dependently, and this death could be prevented by overexpression of wild-type PKD, but not mutant PKD or the empty adenovirus. Indeed, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by Src kinases exacerbated UVB-elicited apoptosis. Thus, our data indicate that UVB irradiation of keratinocytes induces Src-mediated activation of PKD, which protects cells from UVB-stimulated apoptosis, providing a possible explanation for the observed upregulation of PKD in BCC.Oncogene 12/2010; 30(13):1586-96. DOI:10.1038/onc.2010.540 · 8.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, including neurotransmitters, hormones, chemokines, and bioactive lipids, act as potent cellular growth factors and have been implicated in a variety of normal and abnormal processes, including development, inflammation, and malignant transformation. Typically, the binding of an agonistic ligand to its cognate GPCR triggers the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways that act in a synergistic and combinatorial fashion to relay the mitogenic signal to the nucleus and promote cell proliferation. A rapid increase in the activity of phospholipases C, D, and A2 leading to the synthesis of lipid-derived second messengers, Ca2+ fluxes and subsequent activation of protein phosphorylation cascades, including PKC/PKD, Raf/MEK/ERK, and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K is an important early response to mitogenic GPCR agonists. The EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase has emerged as a transducer in the signaling by GPCRs, a process termed transactivation. GPCR signal transduction also induces striking morphological changes and rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple cellular proteins, including the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the adaptor proteins CAS and paxillin. The pathways stimulated by GPCRs are extensively interconnected by synergistic and antagonistic crosstalks that play a critical role in signal transmission, integration, and dissemination. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in defining the pathways that play a role in transducing mitogenic responses induced by GPCR agonists.Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/2007; 213(3):589-602. DOI:10.1002/jcp.21246 · 3.87 Impact Factor