Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway structure of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
ABSTRACT The anatomical relationships between lymphoid, bony, and other tissues affecting the shape of the upper airway in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have not been established. We therefore compared the upper airway structure in 18 young children with OSAS (age 4.8 +/- 2.1 yr; 12 males and 6 females) and an apnea index of 4.3 +/- 3.9, with 18 matched control subjects (age, 4.9 +/- 2.0 yr; 12 males and 6 females). All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging under sedation. Axial and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted sequences were obtained. Images were analyzed with image-processing software to obtain linear, area, and volumetric measurements of the upper airway and the tissues comprising the airway. The volume of the upper airway was smaller in subjects with OSAS in comparison with control subjects (1.5 +/- 0.8 versus 2.5 +/- 1.2 cm(3); p < 0.005) and the adenoid and tonsils were larger (9.9 +/- 3.9 and 9.1 +/- 2.9 cm(3) versus 6.4 +/- 2.3 and 5.8 +/- 2.2 cm(3); p < 0.005 and p < 0.0005, respectively). Volumes of the mandible and tongue were similar in both groups; however, the soft palate was larger in subjects with OSAS (3.5 +/- 1.1 versus 2.7 +/- 1.2 cm(3); p < 0.05). We conclude that in children with moderate OSAS, the upper airway is restricted both by the adenoid and tonsils; however, the soft palate is also larger in this group, adding further restriction.
SourceAvailable from: Thomasina Margaret Meehan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Tinnitus is a chronic and debilitating condition and approximately 10% of the population is afflicted. This review gives an introduction to current pharmacological therapeutic approaches for tinnitus. It is concluded that many treatments have been successful in the management of tinnitus and associated symptoms. However, further randomised clinical trials need to be carried out with specific subgroups of tinnitus patients using standardized outcome measurements.
American Thoracic Society 2009 International Conference, May 15-20, 2009 • San Diego, California; 04/2009
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ABSTRACT: The present cross-sectional study aimed to assess daytime sleepiness in Chinese adolescents using the Paediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and to identify associations between PDSS answers and craniofacial characteristics. A group of 265 Chinese adolescents aged 11-17 years self-completed the PDSS, and their extra- and intra-oral craniofacial characteristics were recorded. Among the participants, 59.7% (157) experienced one or more daytime sleepiness events. No significant associations were found between total PDSS scores and the craniofacial parameters, but when PDSS answers were assessed at the item level, several craniofacial characteristics were found to be positively associated with daytime sleepiness, such as hypertrophic tonsils (P = 0.05), a relatively large tongue (P < 0.01), a bilateral Class II molar relationship (P < 0.05) and increased overjet (P < 0.05). A short lower face (P < 0.01) and a convex profile (P < 0.01) were found to be negatively associated with daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness is commonly reported among Chinese adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment and there are potential associations between the condition and craniofacial characteristics. An assessment of daytime sleepiness is recommended to orthodontists in young patients presenting with hypertrophic tonsils, relative large tongues and Class II tendency malocclusions, and appropriate medical referrals should also be considered.The Open Dentistry Journal 01/2015; 9(1):31-40. DOI:10.2174/1874210601509010031