Neuropsychological profiles of children with type 1 diabetes 6 years after disease onset
ABSTRACT To describe neuropsychological profiles and their relationship to metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes 6 years after the onset of disease.
Children with type 1 diabetes (n = 90), aged 6-17 years, who had previously been assessed soon after diagnosis and 2 years later, were reevaluated 6 years after the onset of disease. Their neuropsychological profiles were compared with those of individuals in a community control group (n = 84), who had been assessed at similar intervals. Relationships between illness variables, such as age at the onset of disease and metabolic control history, and neuropsychological status were also examined.
Six years after onset of disease, children with type 1 diabetes performed more poorly than control subjects on measures of intelligence, attention, processing speed, long-term memory, and executive skills. Attention, processing speed, and executive skills were particularly affected in children with onset of disease before 4 years of age, whereas severe hypoglycemia was associated with lower verbal and full-scale intelligence quotient scores.
Neuropsychological profiles of children with type 1 diabetes 6 years after the onset of disease are consistent with subtle compromise of anterior and medial temporal brain regions. Severe hypoglycemia, particularly in very young children, is the most plausible explanation for neuropsychological deficits, but the contributory role of chronic hyperglycemia warrants further exploration.
- SourceAvailable from: Peiyao Cheng[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. (JINS, 2014, 20, 238-247).Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 02/2014; 20(2):238-47. DOI:10.1017/S1355617713001434 · 3.01 Impact Factor
- International Journal of Morphology 09/2011; 29(3):850-856. DOI:10.4067/S0717-95022011000300031 · 0.20 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alexithymia refers to difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions, and it is a characteristic common to several psychiatric and medical conditions, including autoimmune disorders. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder with increased psychiatric comorbidity. Previously reported associations between alexithymia and T1D may have been confounded by the presence of depression. The central aim of this study was to examine alexithymia levels in psychiatrically uncomplicated T1D outpatients with that of nondiabetic controls. Ninety-six T1D patients without any DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses and 105 age- and sex-matched healthy controls entered the study. Alexithymia and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21), respectively. Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate the association of alexithymia with the presence of diabetes, duration of diabetes, diabetes control, parameters of treatment intensification, and diabetic complications. T1D was positively associated with the TAS-20 "identifying feelings" (beta coefficient=2.64, P=.003) and "externally oriented thinking" (beta coefficient=1.73, P=.011) subscales. The prevalence of overall alexithymia (TAS-20 total score, > or =60) was 22.2% in T1D patients and 7.6% in the controls (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.7-12.8). TAS-20 scores were positively associated with diabetes duration and negatively with treatment intensification parameters. Alexithymia is higher in psychiatrically uncomplicated T1D patients than in healthy controls even after adjustment for confounding depressive symptoms; it is greater with longer diabetes duration and is associated with some reduced parameters of treatment intensification but not with worse outcome in terms of glycemic control or somatic complications.Journal of psychosomatic research 10/2009; 67(4):307-13. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.04.011 · 2.84 Impact Factor