Restricted activity among community-living older persons: incidence, precipitants, and health care utilization.
ABSTRACT Restricted activity is a potentially important indicator of health and functional status. Yet, relatively little is known about the incidence, precipitants, or health care utilization associated with restricted activity among older persons.
To more accurately estimate the rate of restricted activity among community-living older persons, to identify the health-related and non-health-related problems that lead to restricted activity, and to determine whether restricted activity is associated with increased health care utilization.
Prospective cohort study.
New Haven, Connecticut.
754 nondisabled members of a large health plan, 70 years of age or older, who were categorized according to their risk for disability (low, intermediate, or high).
Occurrence of restricted activity (defined as having stayed in bed for at least half a day or having cut down on one's usual activities because of an illness, injury, or another problem), problems leading to restricted activity, and health care utilization were ascertained during monthly telephone interviews for up to 2 years.
In median follow-up of 15 months, 76.6% of participants reported restricted activity during at least 1 month and 39.3% reported restricted activity during 2 consecutive months. The rates of restricted activity per 100 person-months were 19.0 episodes for all participants and 16.9, 27.3, and 22.7 episodes for participants at low, intermediate, and high risk for disability, respectively. Of the 24 prespecified health-related and non-health-related problems, the rates per 100 person-months of restricted activity ranged from 0.1 episode for "problem with alcohol" to 65.5 episodes for "been fatigued." On average, participants identified 4.5 different problems as a cause for their restricted activity. Health care utilization was substantially greater during months with restricted activity than months without restricted activity. The corresponding rates per 100 person-months were 63.8 and 45.1 for physician office visits, 12.5 and 1.0 for emergency department visits, 14.1 and 0.3 for hospital admissions, and 67.6 and 45.1 for any health care utilization (P < 0.001 for each pairwise comparison).
Restricted activity is common among community-living older persons, regardless of risk for disability, and it is usually attributable to several concurrent health-related problems. Although restricted activity is associated with a substantial increase in health care utilization, older persons with restricted activity often do not seek medical attention.
- SourceAvailable from: scielo.org.mx[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of functional dependency (FD) on Mexican elderly living in extreme poverty conditions and to estimate the association between falls and FD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey was conducted with three stages for selection, stratified by type of locality (rural or urban) and nationally representative of the 2006 Oportunidades Program. The target population was composed of individuals 70 years of age and older who were beneficiaries of the Oportunidades Program. RESULTS: A total of 30.9% of the elderly presented FD. The gender stratified logistic regression model resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for women of 1.25 (I.C:1.13-1.39) for the association between the increase in the number of falls and FD and OR=1.12 (I.C:0.97-1.29) for men. CONCLUSIONS: Given the vulnerable conditions in which these older adults live, specific interventions need to be implemented to prevent falls in order to reduce the risk of functional dependency.Salud publica de Mexico 02/2011; 53(1):26-33. · 0.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Despite the fact that the physically disabled have difficulties in many aspects of their lives, including sexuality, society often ignores these needs or assume that they have no such needs. This cross-sectional study therefore seeks to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and its impact on the quality of life among persons with physical disability residing in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana.Method This study was conducted among 235 persons with physical disability dwelling in communities within the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana between September 2011 and April 2012. All participants were evaluated by using a semi-structured questionnaire, the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaire and the Sexual Quality of Life questionnaire (SQoL). Self-designed semi-structured questionnaire was also administered to each consented study participant for socio-demographic information.ResultsThe response rates were 72% and 63.6% for male and female respectively. The age range of the male was 19¿74 years with 61.1% being married whilst the age range of the female was 20¿66 years with 54.3% being married. 30% and 7.1% of the male and female respectively consumed alcohol beverage. The mean Sexual quality of life (SQoL) score was slightly higher in the females (57.7¿±¿15.8), ranging from 25.6 to 97.8. Univariate analysis of the male data showed that the only significant factor that tends to increase the male SD was alcohol (OR: 24.6; CI: 1.4 - 14.9; p¿=¿0.0071). The prevalence of SD was higher among the female populace (65.7%) compared to the 64.4% for the male populace though very closely comparable. Except for non-communication (NC) and anorgasmia (impotence in males), all other areas of difficulty had higher percentages in males than females.Conclusion The prevalence of sexual dysfunction among the physically challenged is comparable to prevalence rates in the able male and female population. This could impact significantly on their self-esteem and quality of life via avoidance, impotence and vaginismus thereby causing emotional distress leading to relationship problems. Alcohol increases the risk of developing SD by five-fold in physically challenged men.Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 01/2015; 13(1):3. · 2.10 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Back and neck disability are frequent in older adults resulting in loss of function and independence. Exercise therapy and manual therapy, like spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), have evidence of short and intermediate term effectiveness for spinal disability in the general population and growing evidence in older adults. For older populations experiencing chronic spinal conditions, long term management may be more appropriate to maintain improvement and minimize the impact of future exacerbations. Research is limited comparing short courses of treatment to long term management of spinal disability. The primary aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of 12 weeks versus 36 weeks of SMT and supervised rehabilitative exercise (SRE) in older adults with back and neck disability. Randomized, mixed-methods, comparative effectiveness trial conducted at a university-affiliated research clinic in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area. Independently ambulatory community dwelling adults ≥ 65 years of age with back and neck disability of minimum 12 weeks duration (n = 200). 12 weeks SMT + SRE or 36 weeks SMT + SRE. Blocked 1:1 allocation; computer generated scheme, concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Functional outcome examiners are blinded to treatment allocation; physical nature of the treatments prevents blinding of participants and providers to treatment assignment. 36 weeks post-randomization. Self-report questionnaires administered at 2 baseline visits and 4, 12, 24, 36, 52, and 78 weeks post-randomization. Primary outcomes include back and neck disability, measured by the Oswestry Disability Index and Neck Disability Index. Secondary outcomes include pain, general health status, improvement, self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, satisfaction, and medication use. Functional outcome assessment occurs at baseline and week 37 for hand grip strength, short physical performance battery, and accelerometry. Individual qualitative interviews are conducted when treatment ends. Data on expectations, falls, side effects, and adverse events are systematically collected. Linear mixed-model method for repeated measures to test for between-group differences with baseline values as covariates. Treatments that address the management of spinal disability in older adults may have far reaching implications for patient outcomes, clinical guidelines, and healthcare policy. www.ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT01057706.Chiropractic & manual therapies. 01/2014; 22:26.