Effects of local and remote muscle pain on human jaw reflexes evoked by fast stretches at different clenching levels.
ABSTRACT Muscle pain imposes significant changes on natural motor tasks, but the consequences for stretch reflexes are still disputed. The present study examined the jaw reflexes to fast (10 ms) stretches of the mandible in an experimental model with local pain in the masseter muscle and remote pain in the tibialis anterior muscle. The stretch reflexes were elicited in healthy volunteers (n=13) before, during, and after periods with constant levels of experimental pain and while the subjects clenched at 0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) levels. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record the reflex responses. Pain in the masseter muscle (mean +/- SEM, 3.8+/-0.4 on a 10-cm visual analogue scale), but not in the tibialis anterior muscle (3.4+/-0.3; paired t-test, P=0.318) was associated with significant changes in both prestimulus EMG activity (ANOVA, P=0.002) and in peak-to-peak amplitudes of the stretch reflex (ANOVA, P=0.022). However, when the changes in prestimulus EMG activity were taken into consideration a significant increase in the stretch reflex persisted in the painful muscle at 15% and 30% MVC. Local circuits at the trigeminal level involving the fusimotor system are proposed to mediate a significant part of this modulatory effect.
Article: The influence of cranio-cervical posture on maximal mouth opening and pressure pain threshold in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cranio-cervical posture on the maximal mouth opening (MMO) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders. A total of 29 patients (19 females and 10 males) with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders, aged 19 to 59 years participated in the study (mean years±SD; 34.69±10.83 y). MMO and the PPT (on the right side) of patients in neutral, retracted, and forward head postures were measured. A 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance followed by 3 pair-wise comparisons were used to determine differences. Comparisons indicated significant differences in PPT at 3 points within the trigeminal innervated musculature [masseter (M1 and M2) and anterior temporalis (T1)] among the 3 head postures [M1 (F=117.78; P<0.001), M2 (F=129.04; P<0.001), and T1 (F=195.44; P<0.001)]. There were also significant differences in MMO among the 3 head postures (F=208.06; P<0.001). The intrarater reliability on a given day-to-day basis was good with the interclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.89 to 0.94 and 0.92 to 0.94 for PPT and MMO, respectively, among the different head postures. The results of this study shows that the experimental induction of different cranio-cervical postures influences the MMO and PPT values of the temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication that receive motor and sensory innervation by the trigeminal nerve. Our results provide data that supports the biomechanical relationship between the cranio-cervical region and the dynamics of the temporomandibular joint, as well as trigeminal nociceptive processing in different cranio-cervical postures.The Clinical journal of pain 01/2011; 27(1):48-55. · 3.01 Impact Factor
Pain 11/2010; 152(3 Suppl):S90-8. · 5.78 Impact Factor
Article: Changes in human primary motor cortex activity during acute cutaneous and muscle orofacial pain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether orofacial cutaneous or muscle pain is associated with changes in primary motor cortex (M1) activity that outlast the duration of perceived pain, and whether these M1 changes are different during cutaneous pain compared with muscle pain. fMRI was used in healthy subjects experiencing orofacial muscle (n = 17) or cutaneous (n = 15) pain induced by bolus injections of hypertonic saline (4.5%) into the belly of the masseter muscle (0.5 ml) or subcutaneously (0.2 ml) into the overlying skin, respectively. To determine the effects of the injection volume, isotonic saline (n = 4) was injected into the masseter muscle. Similar pain scores were observed following subcutaneous (mean [± SEM]; 4.73 ± 0.51) or intramuscular injections (4.35 ± 0.56). Orofacial muscle but not cutaneous pain was associated with a transient increase in signal intensity in the contralateral M1. Cutaneous and muscle orofacial pains were associated with similar signal intensity decreases within the contralateral M1 that continued to decrease for the entire scanning period. Isotonic saline did not evoke pain or changes in M1 signal intensity. The transient contralateral M1 signal intensity increase during orofacial muscle pain may underlie escape-like motor patterns. However, once the initial threat has subsided, longer-term reductions in M1 activity and/or excitability may occur to aid in minimizing movement of the affected part, an effect consistent with the general proposals of the Pain Adaptation Model.Journal of orofacial pain 01/2010; 24(4):379-90. · 2.59 Impact Factor