Utilization of yolk platelets during early embryonic development of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo.
ABSTRACT Utilization of yolk platelets in cleaving embryos of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo was studied by different methods. Morphological observations of yolk platelets of R. temporaria embryos at tail bud stage by transmission electron microscopy indicated four initial phases of platelet degradation. The pattern of these events is similar to that found in embryos of B. bufo. The morphological observations were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of the elemental content of platelets and by selected-area electron diffraction of platelet cores. Covalently bound sulphur content decreased during cleavage and the content of different inorganic ions changed, whereas the structure of crystalline core remained constant. Morphological changes found in the amorphous cortex of yolk platelets were due to their utilization. Stereological measurements indicated that utilization during cleavage increased, but only the initial phases of yolk platelet degradation were seen. The volume of the cortex did not decrease and the crystalline core did not fragment.
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ABSTRACT: Total numbers of mitochondria and their morphology have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos of two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Surface densities of inner mitochondrial membranes for both studied species during cleavage ranged from 5.43 m2/cm3 to 7.53 m2/cm3, whereas volume densities of mitochondria did not exceed 1.65%. Since values of these parameters were low, thus embryos during cleavage may be considered as metabolically "silent". Transition of ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria towards that characterising actively respiring organelles occurs at stage 9 for R. temporaria and at stage 8 for B. bufo, correlated with blastula-gastrula and mid-blastula transition, respectively. The total numbers of mitochondria N(c) in mature oocytes are as high as 114.8 and 107.2 millions for R. temporaria and B. bufo, respectively, and during cleavage at late blastula stages they increase to 300 millions for both species under study. We suggest that an undefined mechanism might eliminate during cleavage those amphibian embryos which contain small number of mitochondria and low levels of nutrient substances.Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 02/2005; 43(1):57-63. · 1.10 Impact Factor