The changing effector pattern of tardive dyskinesia during the course of neuroleptic withdrawal.
ABSTRACT Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that can be expressed at various body effector points, including the face, neck, arms, fingers, legs, and torso. In this prospective longitudinal study researchers examined whether the effector pattern of TD changed during the course of neuroleptic medication withdrawal in adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that the effector pattern of TD changed over the course of neuroleptic withdrawal. Peak dyskinesia was associated with the involvement of more body areas relative to baseline. Although dyskinesia decreased at follow-up and fewer body areas showed signs of dyskinesia, there were still differences in the effector pattern of dyskinesia relative to baseline at periods of 1 to 2 years following neuroleptic withdrawal. These findings suggest that TD is a dynamic disorder associated with changes in both severity and effector pattern over time.
- SourceAvailable from: Maria G Valdovinos[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We studied whether movements associated with tardive dyskinesia (TD) served operant functions in 2 men with developmental disabilities. We found that TD-related movements occurred more frequently in the alone and attention conditions and less frequently in control and demand conditions. Our findings suggest that TD-related movements may not be maintained by social reinforcers and that decreases in TD movements are possibly a result of engagement in activities that are incompatible with TD movements.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 01/2004; 37(3):391-3. · 1.19 Impact Factor
- Aging Health. 01/2006; 2(5):833-849.
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ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the Matson Evaluation of Side Effects (MEDS), the Abnormal Inventory Movement Scale (AIMS), and Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale (DISCUS) are reviewed. Symptom patterns and a focus on additional research are discussed. While progress has been made, more and more systematic methods to research these problems are necessary.Research in developmental disabilities 01/2010; 31(6):1570-6. · 4.41 Impact Factor