Striatal size and relative glucose metabolic rate in schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia.

Bronx Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mental Health Patient Care Center, 130 W Kingsbridge Rd, Bronx, NY 10468, USA.
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 10/2001; 58(9):877-84. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.9.877
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) shares social deficits and cognitive impairment with schizophrenia, but is not typically characterized by frank psychosis. Because striatal size and functional activity have both been shown to be associated with psychotic symptoms, we carried out the first study of SPD to assess the caudate and putamen for comparison with findings in schizophrenia.
Patients with SPD (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 42), and age- and sex-matched normal control subjects (n = 47) were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. All of the patients with SPD and subsamples of the schizophrenic patients (n = 27) and control subjects (n = 32) were also assessed with positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose F-18.
The relative size of the putamen in controls was significantly larger than in patients with SPD and significantly smaller than in schizophrenic patients, while the relative size of the caudate was similar in all 3 groups. Compared with control values, relative glucose metabolic rate in the ventral putamen was significantly elevated in patients with SPD and reduced in schizophrenic patients. When subsamples of schizophrenic patients (n = 10) and patients with SPD (n = 10) both of whom never received medication were compared, this pattern was more marked, with the highest value for the putamen being found in patients with SPD for the ventral slice and the lowest value for the right dorsal putamen.
Patients with SPD showed reduced volume and elevated relative glucose metabolic rate of the putamen compared with both schizophrenic patients and controls. These alterations in volume and activity may be related to the sparing of patients with SPD from frank psychosis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The default mode network (DMN) has been identified to play a critical role in many mental disorders, but such abnormalities have not yet been determined in patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The purpose of this study was to analyze the alteration of the DMN functional connectivity in subjects with (SPD) and compared it to healthy control subjects. Eighteen DSM-IV diagnosed SPD subjects (all male, average age: 19.7 ± 0.9) from a pool of 3000 first year college students, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy control subjects were recruited (all male, average age: 20.3 ± 0.9). Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to analyze the DMN functional connectivity alteration. Compared to the healthy control group, SPD subjects had significantly decreased functional connectivity in the frontal areas, including the superior and medial frontal gyrus, and greater functional connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and sub-lobar regions, including the bilateral putamen and caudate. Compared to subjects with SPD, the healthy control group showed decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, but showed greater functional connectivity in the right transverse temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. The healthy control group also showed greater activation in the cerebellum compared to the SPD group. These findings suggest that DMN functional connectivity, particularly that involving cognitive or emotional regulation, is altered in SPD subjects, and thus may be helpful in studying schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 11/2014; 160(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.10.013 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 07/2014; 16(7):452. DOI:10.1007/s11920-014-0452-1 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: How to cite this article: E. Zampieri, M. Bellani, B. Crespo-Facorro and P. Brambilla Basal ganglia anatomy and schizophrenia: the role of antipsychotic treatment. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, Available on CJO 2014 This Section of Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences regularly appears in each issue of the Journal to stress the relevance of epidemiology for behavioral neurosciences, reporting the results of studies that explore the use of an epidemiological approach for providing a better understanding of the neural basis of major psychiatric disorders and, in turn, the utilisation of the behavioural neurosciences for promoting innovative epidemiological research. The final scope is to help the translation of most relevant research findings into everyday clinical practice. These contributions are written in house by the journal's editorial team or commissioned by the Section Editor (no more than 1000 words, short unstructured abstract, 4 keywords , one Table or Figure and up to ten references). Paolo Brambilla, Section Editor
    Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 11/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor