Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes is dependent upon cortical actin remodeling.
ABSTRACT Rhodamine-labeled phalloidin staining of morphologically differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes demonstrated that F-actin predominantly exists juxtaposed to and lining the inner face of the plasma membrane (cortical actin) with a smaller amount of stress fiber and/or ruffling actin confined to the cell bottom in contact with the substratum. The extent of cortical actin disruption with various doses of either latrunculin B or Clostridium difficile toxin B (a Rho family small GTP-binding protein toxin) directly correlated with the inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. The dissolution of the cortical actin network had no significant effect on proximal insulin receptor signaling events including insulin receptor autophosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate and Cbl, or serine/threonine phosphorylation of Akt. Surprisingly, however, stabilization of F-actin with jasplakinolide also resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. In vivo time-lapse confocal fluorescent microscopy of actin-yellow fluorescent protein demonstrated that insulin stimulation initially results in cortical actin remodeling followed by an increase in polymerized actin in the peri-nuclear region. Importantly, the insulin stimulation of cortical actin rearrangements was completely blocked by treatment of the cells with latrunculin B, C. difficile toxin B, and jasplakinolide. Furthermore, expression of the dominant-interfering TC10/T31N mutant completely disrupted cortical actin and prevents any insulin-stimulated actin remodeling. Together, these data demonstrate that cortical actin, but not stress fibers, lamellipodia, or filopodia, plays an important regulatory role in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. In addition, cortical F-actin does not function in a static manner (e.g. barrier or scaffold), but insulin-stimulated dynamic cortical actin remodeling is necessary for the GLUT4 translocation process.
Article: Protein kinase C-zeta regulation of GLUT4 translocation through actin remodeling in CHO cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Actin remodeling plays a crucial role in insulin-induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane and subsequent glucose transport. Protein kinase C (PKC) zeta has been implicated in this translocation process, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of PKCzeta on actin cytoskeleton and translocation of GLUT4 in CHO-K1 cells expressing myc-tagged GLUT4. Insulin stimulated the phosphorylation of PKCzeta at Thr410 with no apparent effect on its protein expression. Moreover, insulin promoted colocalization of PKCzeta and actin that could be abolished by Latrunculin B. The overexpression of PKCzeta mimicked the insulin-induced change in actin cytoskeleton and translocation of GLUT4. These effects were also completely abrogated by Latrunculin B treatment. Using cell-permeable pseudosubstrate (PS) inhibitor of PKCzeta, the response to insulin could be alleviated. Our results strongly suggest that PKCzeta mediates the stimulatory effect of insulin on GLUT4 translocation through its interaction with actin cytoskeleton.Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2007; 85(8):851-61. · 4.67 Impact Factor
Article: Focal Adhesion Kinase contributes to insulin-induced actin reorganization into a mesh harboring Glucose transporter-4 in insulin resistant skeletal muscle cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is recently reported to regulate insulin resistance by regulating glucose uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. However, the underlying mechanism for FAK-mediated glucose transporter-4 translocation (Glut-4), responsible for glucose uptake, remains unknown. Recently actin remodeling was reported to be essential for Glut-4 translocation. Therefore, we investigated whether FAK contributes to insulin-induced actin remodeling and harbor Glut-4 for glucose transport and whether downregulation of FAK affects the remodeling and causes insulin resistance. To address the issue we employed two approaches: gain of function by overexpressing FAK and loss of function by siRNA-mediated silencing of FAK. We observed that overexpression of FAK induces actin remodeling in skeletal muscle cells in presence of insulin. Concomitant to this Glut-4 molecules were also observed to be present in the vicinity of remodeled actin, as indicated by the colocalization studies. FAK-mediated actin remodeling resulted into subsequent glucose uptake via PI3K-dependent pathway. On the other hand FAK silencing reduced actin remodeling affecting Glut-4 translocation resulting into insulin resistance. The data confirms that FAK regulates glucose uptake through actin reorganization in skeletal muscle. FAK overexpression supports actin remodeling and subsequent glucose uptake in a PI3K dependent manner. Inhibition of FAK prevents insulin-stimulated remodeling of actin filaments resulting into decreased Glut-4 translocation and glucose uptake generating insulin resistance. To our knowledge this is the first study relating FAK, actin remodeling, Glut-4 translocation and glucose uptake and their interrelationship in generating insulin resistance.BMC Cell Biology 10/2008; 9:48. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocytes use glucose as well as fatty acids for ATP production. These substrates are transported into the cell by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and the fatty acid transporter CD36. Besides being located at the sarcolemma, GLUT4 and CD36 are stored in intracellular compartments. Raised plasma insulin concentrations and increased cardiac work will stimulate GLUT4 as well as CD36 to translocate to the sarcolemma. As so far studied, signaling pathways that regulate GLUT4 translocation similarly affect CD36 translocation. During the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, CD36 becomes permanently localized at the sarcolemma, whereas GLUT4 internalizes. This juxtaposed positioning of GLUT4 and CD36 is important for aberrant substrate uptake in the diabetic heart: chronically increased fatty acid uptake at the expense of glucose. To explain the differences in subcellular localization of GLUT4 and CD36 in type 2 diabetes, recent research has focused on the role of proteins involved in trafficking of cargo between subcellular compartments. Several of these proteins appear to be similarly involved in both GLUT4 and CD36 translocation. Others, however, have different roles in either GLUT4 or CD36 translocation. These trafficking components, which are differently involved in GLUT4 or CD36 translocation, may be considered novel targets for the development of therapies to restore the imbalanced substrate utilization that occurs in obesity, insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 05/2011; 68(15):2525-38. · 6.57 Impact Factor