A comparative study on effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on some antioxidant enzyme activities of liver and brain tissues.
ABSTRACT Since selenium and vitamin E have been increasingly recognized as an essential element in biology and medicine, current research activities in the field of human medicine and nutrition are devoted to the possibilities of using these antioxidants for the prevention or treatment of many diseases. The present study was aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of dietary antioxidants on glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as free and protein-bound sulfhydryl contents of rat liver and brain tissues. For 12-14 wk, both sex of weanling rats were fed a standardized selenium-deficient and vitamin E-deficient diet, a selenium-excess diet, or a control diet. It is observed that glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities of both tissues of the rats fed with a selenium-deficient or excess diet were significantly lower than the values of the control group. It is also shown that free and bound sulfhydryl concentrations of these tissues of both experimental groups were significantly lower than the control group. The percentage of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities of the deficient group with respect to the control were 50% and 47% in liver and 66% and 61% in the brain, respectively; while these values in excess group were 51% and 69% in liver and 55% and 80% in brain, respectively. Free sulfhydryl contents of the tissues in both experimental groups showed a parallel decrease. Furthermore, the decrease in protein-bound sulfhydryl values of brain tissues were more pronounced than the values found for liver. It seems that not only liver but also the brain is an important target organ to the alteration in antioxidant system through either a deficiency of both selenium and vitamin E or an excess of selenium alone in the diet.
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ABSTRACT: Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency can influence the function of the brain. Our objective was to investigate the effects of Se deficiency on oxidative damage and calcium (Ca) homeostasis in brain of chicken. In the present study, 1-day-old chickens were fed either a commercial diet (as control group) with 0.15 mg/kg Se or a Se-deficient diet (as L group) with 0.033 mg/kg Se for 75 days. Then, brain injury biomarkers were examined, including histological analysis, ultrastructure assay, and apoptosis assay. We also examined the effect of Se deficiency on the Se-containing antioxidative enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the level of glutathione (GSH), and the Ca homeostasis in brain of chicken. The results showed that the levels of Se and GSH and activity of GSH-Px are seriously reduced by 33.8-96 % (P < 0.001), 24.51-27.84 % (P < 0.001), and 20.70-64.24 % (P < 0.01), respectively. In the present study, we also perform histological analysis and ultrastructure assay and find that Se deficiency caused disorganized histological structure, damage to the mitochondria, fusion of nuclear membrane and nucleus shrinkage, higher apoptosis rate (P < 0.001), and increase of Ca homeostasis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 or P < 0.001) in the brain of chicken. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that Se deficiency induced oxidative damage and disbalance of Ca homeostasis in the brain of chicken. Similar to mammals, chickens brain is also extremely susceptible to oxidative damage and selenium deficiency.Biological trace element research 11/2012; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The amount of the trace elements As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn was measured in top soils and edible mushrooms, Boletus edulis, Macrolepiota procera, collected at five distinct green microhabitats inside the Lucca province, North-Central Italy (years 2008-2009). Results showed a top soil element content within the Italian statutory limits. Concerning the amount of mushroom elements, we observed significant species-differences obtaining higher levels of Ni, Rb, and Se in B. edulis or As, Pb, Cu in M. procera. Bioaccumulation factors (BCFs: element in mushroom/element in soil) resulted species-dependent and element-selective: in particular, B. edulis preferentially accumulated Se (BCFs varying from 14 to 153), while M. procera mainly concentrated Cu (BCFs varying from 5 to 15). As well, both species displayed between-site BCF differences. By a multivariate principal component approach, cluster analysis (CA), we could resolve two main clusters of soil element composition, corresponding to the most ecologically divergent sites. Besides, CA showed no cluster relating to element contents of B. edulis at the different collection sites, while a separation in groups was found for M. procera composition with respect to harvesting locations, suggesting uptake systems, in this saprotrophic species, sensitive to microhabitat. Regarding consumer safety, Cd, Hg, Pb levels resulted sometime relevant in present samples, never reaching values from current literature on mushrooms collected in urban-polluted areas. Our findings encourage a deeper assessment of the molecular mechanisms of metal intake by edible mushrooms, encompassing genetic biochemical and geo-ecological variables, with particular awareness to element bioavailability in soils and fungi.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 02/2012; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the hepatotoxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in relation to selenium status. In 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats, selenium deficiency was induced by a ≤0.05 selenium mg/kg. A selenium supplementation group was given 1 mg selenium/kg diet for 5 weeks. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-treated groups received 1000 mg/kg dose by gavage during the last 10 days of the experiment. Histopathology, peroxisome proliferation, catalase (CAT) immunoreactivity and activity and apoptosis were assessed. Activities of antioxidant selenoenzymes [glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1)], superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST); aminotransferase, total glutathione (tGSH), and lipid peroxidation (LP) levels were measured. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate caused cellular disorganization while necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in Se-deficient DEHP group (DEHP/SeD). Catalase activity and immunoreactivity were increased in all DEHP-treated groups. Glutathione peroxidase 1 and GPx4 activities decreased significantly in DEHP and DEHP/SeD groups, while GST activities decreased in all DEHP-exposed groups. Thioredoxin reductase activity increased in DEHP and DEHP/SeS, while total SOD activities increased in all DEHP-treated groups. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly in SeD (26%), DEHP (38%) and DEHP/SeD (71%) groups. Selenium supplementation partially ameliorated DEHP-induced hepatotoxicity; while in DEHP/SeD group, drastic changes in hepatic histopathology and oxidative stress parameters were observed.International Journal of Experimental Pathology 11/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor