Since selenium and vitamin E have been increasingly recognized as an essential element in biology and medicine, current research activities in the field of human medicine and nutrition are devoted to the possibilities of using these antioxidants for the prevention or treatment of many diseases. The present study was aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of dietary antioxidants on glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as free and protein-bound sulfhydryl contents of rat liver and brain tissues. For 12-14 wk, both sex of weanling rats were fed a standardized selenium-deficient and vitamin E-deficient diet, a selenium-excess diet, or a control diet. It is observed that glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities of both tissues of the rats fed with a selenium-deficient or excess diet were significantly lower than the values of the control group. It is also shown that free and bound sulfhydryl concentrations of these tissues of both experimental groups were significantly lower than the control group. The percentage of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities of the deficient group with respect to the control were 50% and 47% in liver and 66% and 61% in the brain, respectively; while these values in excess group were 51% and 69% in liver and 55% and 80% in brain, respectively. Free sulfhydryl contents of the tissues in both experimental groups showed a parallel decrease. Furthermore, the decrease in protein-bound sulfhydryl values of brain tissues were more pronounced than the values found for liver. It seems that not only liver but also the brain is an important target organ to the alteration in antioxidant system through either a deficiency of both selenium and vitamin E or an excess of selenium alone in the diet.
"The element can also bind to amino acids forming low molecular species. A diet rich in Se (Turan et al. 2001) ensures protection against free oxygen reactive species in tissues. Ingested Se can also bind to other toxic elements, as As, Cd, and Hg preventing their noxious action (Falandysz 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amount of the trace elements As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn was measured in top soils and edible mushrooms, Boletus edulis, Macrolepiota procera, collected at five distinct green microhabitats inside the Lucca province, North-Central Italy (years 2008-2009). Results showed a top soil element content within the Italian statutory limits. Concerning the amount of mushroom elements, we observed significant species-differences obtaining higher levels of Ni, Rb, and Se in B. edulis or As, Pb, Cu in M. procera. Bioaccumulation factors (BCFs: element in mushroom/element in soil) resulted species-dependent and element-selective: in particular, B. edulis preferentially accumulated Se (BCFs varying from 14 to 153), while M. procera mainly concentrated Cu (BCFs varying from 5 to 15). As well, both species displayed between-site BCF differences. By a multivariate principal component approach, cluster analysis (CA), we could resolve two main clusters of soil element composition, corresponding to the most ecologically divergent sites. Besides, CA showed no cluster relating to element contents of B. edulis at the different collection sites, while a separation in groups was found for M. procera composition with respect to harvesting locations, suggesting uptake systems, in this saprotrophic species, sensitive to microhabitat. Regarding consumer safety, Cd, Hg, Pb levels resulted sometime relevant in present samples, never reaching values from current literature on mushrooms collected in urban-polluted areas. Our findings encourage a deeper assessment of the molecular mechanisms of metal intake by edible mushrooms, encompassing genetic biochemical and geo-ecological variables, with particular awareness to element bioavailability in soils and fungi.
"It was reported that, the dietary supplementation of selenium significantly increased the egg production and hatchability and decreased the percentage of infertile eggs and early dead embryos. As selenium and vitamin E have been increasingly recognized as an essential element in biology and medicine, current research activities in the field of both human and animal medicine and nutrition are devoted to the possibilities of using these antioxidants for the prevention or treatment of many diseases (Turan et al., 2001). Dietary selenium and vitamin E stimulates immune response in poultry against bacterial and viral infections (Morandi et al., 1993), improve reproductive performance (Barreto et al., 1997) of broiler breeders as well as to increase economic returns (Ganpule and Manjunatha, 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present research has been designed to understand the effect of selenium and vitamin E on the lymphocyte and changes in the frequency of Ig-containing plasma cells in the lymphatic organ and ileum (representative organ for mucosa-associated lymphatic tissues) of different postnatal stages of Kasilla broiler chickens. A routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain were used to study the histology of the lymphocytic changes, and indirect immunoperoxidase staining method was performed for the study of the distributional and dynamical changes of the Ig-containing plasma cells within the lymphatic tissues and in the ileum of control broilers and in the broilers supplemented with different concentration of selenium and vitamin E in the diet. Histologically, the population of lymphocytes decreased in the lobules of the thymus, medulla of bursal follicles, splenic masses, lymphatic nodules of the cecal tonsil, and villi of the ilium in 0.1 mg and 0.5 mg selenium supplemented broilers in comparison with the control. The population of these cells was found to increase in 150 mg and 300 mg vitamin E supplemented chickens in the present study. In the spleen IgG- and the IgM-containing plasma cells were more than IgA-containing plasma cells. In contrast, in the cecal tonsil and ileum IgA-containing plasma cells were more than IgG- and IgM-containing plasma cells. The frequency of these immunopositive cells were decreased in 0.1 mg and 0.5 mg selenium supplementated chickens, and increased their frequency in the chickens supplemented with 150 mg and 300 mg vitamin E. In the spleen the frequency of IgM-containing plasma cells and both in the cecal tonsil and ileum, the IgG-containing plasma cells were more decreased by selenium supplementation which restored in their population by vitamin E supplementation.
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