Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of mecamylamine monotherapy for Tourette's disorder
ABSTRACT The safety and efficacy of mecamylamine as a monotherapy in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder (TD) was investigated in an 8-week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Eligible subjects included subjects with TD (DSM-IV), with a naturalistic mix of comorbid diagnoses, nonsmokers, aged 8 to 17 years, whose behavioral and emotional symptoms (according to parents) were more disturbing than tics. After a washout period of all psychotropic medication, subjects were randomly assigned to either mecamylamine (n = 29) or placebo (n = 32). Mecamylamine doses ranged from 2.5 to 7.5 mg/day. Primary efficacy measures included the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Clinician Rated (TODS-CR) and 21-point Clinical Global Improvement scale; secondary efficacy measures included the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and a rage-attack scale (RAScal).
Of the 61 subjects who were randomized, 50 (82%) completed at least 3 weeks on medication and 38 (62%) completed the full 8-week trial. Study withdrawals included 12/29 on mecamylamine and 11/32 on placebo. For the total sample, mecamylamine was no more effective than placebo on any of the outcome measures. However, an item analysis of the TODS-CR suggested that mecamylamine may have reduced sudden mood changes and depression in moderately to severely affected subjects. Except for a slight increase in heart rate during the 1st week in both the mecamylamine and the placebo groups, there where no significant mecamylamine-related changes in vital signs, electrocardiogram, complete blood cell count, or blood chemistry values.
Mecamylamine, in doses up to 7.5 mg/day, is well tolerated in children and adolescents, but as a monotherapy it does not appear to be an effective treatment for tics or for the total spectrum of symptoms associated with TD. However, further studies should be conducted to investigate its possible therapeutic effects in subjects with comorbid mood disorders and as an adjunct to neuroleptic medication.
SourceAvailable from: Marina R Picciotto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders is striking. Preclinical and clinical studies of nicotinic effects on mood, anxiety, aggression, and related behaviors, such as irritability and agitation, suggest that smokers may use the nicotine in tobacco products as an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of affective disorders. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in circuits regulating mood and anxiety is beginning to be elucidated in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on aggression-related behavioral states (ARBS) are still not understood. Clinical trials of nicotine or nicotinic medications for neurological and psychiatric disorders have often found effects of nicotinic medications on ARBS, but few trials have studied these outcomes systematically. Similarly, the increase in ARBS resulting from smoking cessation can be resolved by nicotinic agents, but the effects of nicotinic medications on these types of mental states and behaviors in non-smokers are less well understood. Here we review the literature on the role of nAChRs in regulating mood and anxiety, and subsequently on the closely related construct of ARBS. We suggest avenues for future study to identify how nAChRs and nicotinic agents may play a role in these clinically important areas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor'. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Neuropharmacology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.12.028 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large body of evidence using experimental animal models shows that the nicotinic cholinergic system is involved in the control of movement under physiological conditions. This work raised the question whether dysregulation of this system may contribute to motor dysfunction and whether drugs targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may be of therapeutic benefit in movement disorders. Accumulating preclinical studies now show that drugs acting at nAChRs improve drug-induced dyskinesias. The general nAChR agonist nicotine, as well as several nAChR agonists (varenicline, ABT-089 and ABT-894) reduce L-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements or dyskinesias up to 60% in parkinsonian nonhuman primates and rodents. These dyskinesias are potentially debilitating abnormal involuntary movements that arise as a complication of L-dopa therapy for Parkinson's disease. In addition, nicotine and varenicline decrease antipsychotic-induced abnormal involuntary movements in rodent models of tardive dyskinesia. Antipsychotic-induced dyskinesias frequently arise as a side effect of chronic drug treatment for schizophrenia, psychosis and other psychiatric disorders. Preclinical and clinical studies also show that the nAChR agonist varenicline improves balance and coordination in various ataxias. Lastly, nicotine has been reported to attenuate the dyskinetic symptoms of Tourette's disorder. Several nAChR subtypes appear to be involved in these beneficial effects of nicotine and nAChR drugs including α4β2*, α6β2* and α7 nAChRs (the asterisk indicates the possible presence of other subunits in the receptor). Overall, the above findings, coupled with nicotine's neuroprotective effects, suggest that nAChR drugs have potential for future drug development for movement disorders.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.05.004 · 7.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome is a complex neurobehavioral disorder defined by multiple motor and at least 1 vocal tic, persisting over 1 year, waxing and waning in severity, and not explained by another condition. The condition may range from mild nuisance to debilitating and disabling in severity. Management includes counseling and reassurance, behavioral interventions, pharmacologic, and rarely, surgical interventions. Traditionally, alpha-2 agonists and dopamine receptor antagonists have been utilized. In addition, a number of different pharmacotherapies have been implemented in the search for improved management of tics with better tolerability. In rare, severely disabling cases, neuromodulation with deep brain stimulation may be indicated. Optimal brain targets and candidate selection are still in evolution. This article will review the evidence for current medical and surgical therapies with a focus on recent updates.Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 07/2014; 14(7):458. DOI:10.1007/s11910-014-0458-4 · 3.78 Impact Factor