Molecular and clinical diversity in paraneoplastic immunity to Ma proteins.
ABSTRACT Antibodies to Ma1 and Ma2 proteins identify a paraneoplastic disorder that affects the limbic system, brain stem, and cerebellum. Preliminary studies suggested the existence of other Ma proteins and different patterns of immune response associated with distinct neurologic symptoms and cancers. In this study, our aim was to isolate the full-length sequence of Ma2 and new family members, identify the major autoantigen of the disorder, and extend the dinical-immunological analysis to 29 patients. Sera from selected patients were used to probe a brainstem cDNA library and isolate the entire Ma2 gene and a new family member, Ma3. Ma3 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in brain, testis, and several systemic tissues. The variable cellular expression of Ma proteins and analysis of protein motifs suggest that these proteins play roles in the biogenesis of mRNA. Immunoblot studies identify Ma2 as the major autoantigen with unique epitopes recognized by all patients' sera. Eighteen patients had antibodies limited to Ma2: they developed limbic, hypothalamic, and brainstem encephalitis, and 78% had germ-cell tumors of the testis. Eleven patients had antibodies to Ma2 and additional antibodies to Ma1 and/or Ma3; they usually developed additional cerebellar symptoms and more intense brainstem dysfunction, and 82% of these patients had tumors other than germ-cell neoplasms. Overall, 17 of 24 patients (71%) with brain magnetic resonance imaging studies had abnormalities within or outside the temporal lobes, some as contrast-enhancing nodular lesions. A remarkable finding of immunity to Ma proteins is that neurologic symptoms may improve or resolve. This improvement segregated to a group of patients with antibodies limited to Ma2.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) associated with gynecological cancer is rare. Here, we reported the first case of ovarian cancer revealed by PCD in our institute. we describe a 80- year -old Moroccan female presented with subacute vestibular and cerebellar syndromes, she had an inguinal lymphadenopathy,with high levels of Anti-YO. Rapid progression and absence of known etiologies point towards a probable paraneoplastic origin of the syndrome in this patient. The exact incidence of PNS among those diagnosed with cancer remains uncertain, it is important to report this cases in the literature to help early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, which are able to stabilize the neurological symptoms.The Pan African medical journal. 01/2014; 18:2.
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ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are disorders of the nervous system that are associated with remote effects of malignancy. PNS are considered to have an autoimmune pathology. It has been suggested that immune antitumor responses are the origin of improved outcome in PNS. We describe cell-mediated immune responses in PNS and their potential contributions to antitumor reactions. Experimental and neuropathological studies have revealed infiltrates in nervous tissue and disturbances in lymphocyte populations in both cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. A predominance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) over T helper cells has been observed. CTLs can be specifically aggressive against antigens shared by tumors and nervous tissue. Based on genetic studies, a common clonal origin of lymphocytes from blood, tumor, and nervous tissue is suggested. Suppressive regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes are dysfunctional. Simultaneously, in tumor tissue, more intense cell-mediated immune responses are observed, which often coincide with a less aggressive course of neoplastic disease. An increased titer of onconeural antibodies is also related to better prognoses in patients without PNS. The evaluation of onconeural and neuronal surface antibodies was recommended in current guidelines. The link between PNS emergence and antitumor responses may result from more active CTLs and less functional Treg lymphocytes.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2013; 2013:630602. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare disorder that typically follows a chronic or subacute course of personality changes, memory loss, seizures, and hallucinations. Early diagnosis is difficult and characteristic symptoms can be mimicked by a variety of conditions. We present a case of PLE, initially presenting as acute herpetic encephalitis. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of acute onset headache, fever, and confusion. On neurological examination he was confused with MMSE score of 15/30. CSF analysis revealed marked lymphocytic pleocytosis. A possible diagnosis of acute herpetic encephalitis was rendered and patient was treated with acyclovir. CSF PCR was negative. Cranial MRI revealed bilateral hyperintense lesions in medial temporal lobes with contrast enhancement. Despite treatment with acyclovir patient was deteriorated; thus, a paraneoplastic syndrome was suspected. Chest CT showed a right paratracheal lymph node mass, while a biopsy revealed neuroendocrine lung cancer. Auto antibodies to Hu were also detected. The patient was treated with steroids and chemotherapy. Six months later, he had complete tumour remission and marked neurological improvement. Discussion. PLE can rarely invade acutely, being indistinguishable from herpetic encephalitis. Inclusion of PLE in the differential diagnosis of acute encephalitis is of great clinical significance.Case reports in neurological medicine. 01/2013; 2013:608643.