Nepadutant pharmacokinetics and dose-effect relationships as tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist are altered by intestinal inflammation in rodent models.
ABSTRACT Tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists could reduce motility and symptoms during gastrointestinal diseases characterized by local inflammation such as diarrhea or colitis; however, how these conditions change pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of NK2 receptor antagonists is unknown. We investigated the effect of the peptide NK2 receptor antagonist nepadutant on spontaneous intestinal motility or [betaAla8]NKA(4-10)-induced colonic and bladder contractions in rodent models of intestinal inflammation (enteritis induced by castor oil and rectocolitis induced by local instillation of acetic acid in rats, enteritis induced by bacterial toxins in mice). In the castor oil model, the oral/intraduodenal bioavailability of nepadutant was also determined. The intrarectal (i.r.) administration of nepadutant (100 nmol/kg) did not reduce [betaAla8]NKA(4-10) (10 nmol/kg i.v.)-induced colonic and bladder contractions in normal animals, but the same dose of nepadutant produced an inhibitory effect in the two organs following rectocolitis; in contrast, nepadutant is equieffective by the intravenous route in normal and colitic animals. In this model, nepadutant (100 nmol/kg i.r. or i.v.) decreased spontaneous colonic hypermotility, without affecting motility in controls. The intraduodenal administration of nepadutant (30 nmol/kg), which was ineffective on [betaAla8]NKA(4-10) (10 nmol/kg i.v.)-induced colonic and bladder contractions in control animals, abolished bladder contractions in castor oil-pretreated animals. In this latter group, the oral and intraduodenal bioavailability of nepadutant showed a 7- to 9-fold increase with respect to controls. Oral administration of nepadutant, in nanomolar or subnanomolar dosage, reduced diarrhea induced by bacterial toxins in mice. It is concluded that intestinal inflammation increases nepadutant absorption in the intestine, enhancing its activity. These results suggest that a drug with a limited oral bioavailability could be used for treating gastrointestinal diseases associated with a local inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Tachykinin NK2 receptors are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of both laboratory animals and humans. Experimental data indicate a role for these receptors in the regulation of intestinal motor functions (both excitatory and inhibitory), secretions, inflammation and visceral sensitivity. In particular, NK2 receptor stimulation inhibits intestinal motility by activating sympathetic extrinsic pathways or NANC intramural inhibitory components, whereas a modulatory effect on cholinergic nerves or a direct effect on smooth muscle account for the NK2 receptor-mediated increase in intestinal motility. Accordingly, selective NK2 receptor antagonists can reactivate inhibited motility or decrease inflammation- or stress-associated hypermotility. Intraluminal secretion of water is increased by NK2 receptor agonists via a direct effect on epithelial cells, and this mechanism is active in models of diarrhoea since selective antagonists reverse the increase in faecal water content in these models. Hyperalgesia in response to intraluminal volume signals is possibly mediated through the stimulation of NK2 receptors located on peripheral branches of primary afferent neurones. NK2 receptor antagonists reduce the hyper-responsiveness that occurs following intestinal inflammation or application of stressful stimuli to animals. Likewise, NK2 receptor antagonists reduce intestinal tissue damage induced by chemical irritation of the intestinal wall or lumen. In healthy volunteers, the selective NK2 antagonist nepadutant reduced the motility-stimulating effects and irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms triggered by intravenous infusion of neurokinin A, and displayed other characteristics that could support its use in patients. It is concluded that blockade of peripheral tachykinin NK2 receptors should be considered as a viable mechanism for decreasing the painful symptoms and altered bowel habits of irritable bowel syndrome patients.British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2004; 141(8):1249-63. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurogenic mechanisms have been implicated in the induction of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) has been visualized on nerve terminals of intrinsic and extrinsic afferent neurones innervating the gastrointestinal tract and local administration of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, reduces the severity of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats (Gut 2003; 52: 713-9(1)). Our aim was to test whether systemically or orally administered TRPV1 antagonists attenuate experimental colitis induced by 5% DSS in Balb/c mice. Intraperitoneal capsazepine (2.5 mg kg(-1), bid), significantly reduced the overall macroscopic damage severity compared with vehicle-treated animals (80% inhibition, P < 0.05); however, there was no effect on myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels. An experimental TRPV1 antagonist given orally was tested against DSS-induced colitis, and shown to reverse the macroscopic damage score at doses of 0.5 and 5.0 mg kg(-1). Epithelial damage assessed microscopically was significantly reduced. MPO levels were attenuated by approximately 50%, and diarrhoea scores were reduced by as much as 70%. These results suggest that pharmacological modulation of TRPV1 attenuates indices of experimental colitis in mice, and that development of orally active TRPV1 antagonists might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of IBD.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 12/2004; 16(6):811-8. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than 10 years of intensive preclinical investigation of selective tachykinin (TK) receptor antagonists has provided a rationale to the speculation that peripheral neurokinin (NK)-1, -2 and -3 receptors may be involved in the pathophysiology of various human diseases at the visceral level. In the airways, despite promising effects in animal models of asthma, pilot clinical trials with selective NK-1 or -2 receptor antagonists in asthmatics have been ambiguous, whereas the potential antitussive effects of NK-1, -2 or -3 antagonists have not yet been verified in humans. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and pancreatitis are appealing targets for peripherally-acting NK-1 and -2 antagonists, respectively. In the genito-urinary tract, NK-1 receptor antagonists could offer some protection against nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents, whereas NK-2 receptor antagonists appear to be promising new agents for the treatment of neurogenic bladder hyperreflexia. Finally, there is preclinical evidence for hypothesising an effect of NK-3 receptor antagonists on the cardiovascular disturbance that characterises pre-eclampsia. Other more speculative applications are also mentioned.Expert opinion on therapeutic targets 07/2003; 7(3):343-62. · 3.72 Impact Factor