Parent-adolescent communication and sexual risk behaviors among African American adolescent females.
ABSTRACT To examine associations between parent-adolescent communication about sex-related topics and the sex-related communication and practices of African American adolescent females with partners, as well as their perceived ability to negotiate safer sex.
A theory-guided survey and structured interview were administered to 522 sexually active African American females 14 to 18 years old. Recruitment sites were neighborhoods with high rates of unemployment, substance abuse, violence, and sexually transmitted diseases. Multivariate analyses, controlling for observed covariates, were used to identify the association of less frequent parent-adolescent communication with multiple assessed outcomes.
Less frequent parent-adolescent communication (scores below the median) was associated with adolescents' non-use of contraceptives in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.7) and non-use of contraceptives during the last 5 sexual encounters (AOR = 1.6). Less communication increased the odds of never using condoms in the past month (AOR = 1.6), during the last 5 sexual encounters (AOR = 1.7), and at last intercourse (AOR = 1.7). Less communication was also associated with less communication between adolescents and their sex partners (AOR = 3.3) and lower self-efficacy to negotiate safer sex (AOR = 1.8).
The findings demonstrate the importance of involving parents in human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease and pregnancy prevention efforts directed at female adolescents. Pediatricians and other clinicians can play an important role in facilitating parent-adolescent communication about sexual activity.
- SourceAvailable from: Mamakiri Khunwane[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent–adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent–adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent–adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n = 506) and female (57%, n = 469). Of the participants, 57% (n = 471) reported high parent–adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent–adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47, CI: 1.0–2.17, Indian OR: 2.67, CI: 1.05–6.77, White OR: 2.96, CI: 1.21–7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent–adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49, CI: 1.01–2.20), but of low parent–adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36, CI: 0.15–0.89). Overall levels of parent–adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent–adolescent communication.Journal of Adolescence 04/2014; 37(3):313–324. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.01.006 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages 12 to 15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners, and examined associations between communication and condom use. More than half of participants had not discussed any sexual topics with their dating partners (54%), and many had not communicated with parents (29%) or best friends (25%). On average, communication was more frequent among adolescents who were female, African American, older, and sexually active, despite some variation in subgroups across partner, parent, and friend communication. Importantly, communication with parents and friends-and the interaction between parent and friend communication-was associated with increased communication with dating partners. Further, among sexually active youth, increased sexual communication with partners was associated with more frequent condom use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the broader family and peer context surrounding adolescent sexual decision making and suggest a possible need to tailor sexual communication interventions.The Journal of Sex Research 12/2013; DOI:10.1080/00224499.2013.843148 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Economic hardship and poor parenting behaviors are associated with increased risk for mental health problems in community adolescents. However, less is known about the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) and parenting behaviors on youth at elevated risk for mental health problems, such as teens seeking outpatient psychiatric care. This study examined whether family SES and parent positive communication were directly and indirectly associated with mental health symptoms 6 months later in urban teens seeking outpatient treatment, after accounting for baseline levels of symptoms. At baseline, adolescent participants (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12–19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and their primary caregivers reported on SES and teen internalizing and externalizing symptoms and engaged in a videotaped discussion of a real-life conflict to assess parent positive communication. At 6-month follow-up, 81 % (N = 279) of families were retained and teens and caregivers again reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized models with a sample of 338, using the full information likelihood method to adjust for missing data. For parent-reported externalizing symptoms, SEM revealed support for the indirect association of SES with follow-up externalizing symptoms via parent positive communication and externalizing symptoms at baseline. For parent reported internalizing symptoms, there was a direct association between SES and follow-up internalizing symptoms, but not an indirect effect via parent positive communication. Youth-reported symptoms were not associated with SES nor with parent positive communication. Current findings extend prior research on adolescent mental health in a diverse sample of urban youth seeking outpatient psychiatric care. These families may benefit from interventions that directly target SES-related difficulties and parent positive communication.Journal of Child and Family Studies 12/2013; 24(3). DOI:10.1007/s10826-013-9872-5 · 1.42 Impact Factor