Enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity in bovine GH transgenic mice involves peripheral mechanisms.

Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden S-40530.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.64). 11/2001; 142(10):4560-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinical and experimental studies indicate a role for GH in mechanisms related to anhedonia/hedonia, psychic energy, and reward. Recently we showed that transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH display increased spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study, we investigated whether this behavioral change is owing to a direct action of GH in the central nervous system or to peripheral GH actions. A transgenic construct, containing the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter directing specific expression of bovine GH to the central nervous system, was designed. The central nervous system-specific expression of bovine GH in the glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH transgenic mice was confirmed, but no effect on spontaneous locomotor activity was observed. Serum bovine GH levels were increased in glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH transgenic mice but clearly lower than in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH. In contrast to the transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH, glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH mice did not display any difference in serum IGF-I levels. The levels of free T(3) and the conversion of the free T(4) to free T(3) were only increased in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH, but serum corticosterone levels were similarly increased in both transgenic models. These results suggest that free T(3) and/or IGF-I, affecting dopamine and serotonin systems in the central nervous system, may mediate the enhanced locomotor activity observed in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deleterious impacts of major mutations can be ameliorated by stabilising selection acting on modifier genes. We hypothesise that a new hyperactive circling mouse (counterspin: Cr) arises when modifier genes inadvertently selected to ameliorate the negative impacts of a growth hormone transgenic insertion segregate into the normal genetic background that lacks the transgene. We hypothesise that such modifiers generate a phenotype “mirror image” to the transgenics on the otherwise normal background. We highlight this by testing a priori hypotheses that counterspin and transgenic growth hormone mice deviate oppositely from normal mice across a broad spectrum of characteristics. Results spanning growth, sensorimotor performance, cognition and striatal neurotransmitters provide strong circumstantial evidence for the hypothesis. In a more direct test for selection in the transgenic mice, we found that those examined in 2008 slept ~3h/d less than they did 14years ago (P<0.0005). This is a profound change strongly supporting the reality of modifier selection in these mice. Our results highlight that modifiers may act powerfully on genetically engineered constructs given a genetically variable background. Furthermore, we suggest that modifier selection might provide a novel method for deriving genetic models, and specifically, models phenotypically opposite to engineered constructs or natural mutations.
    Evolutionary Biology 12/2008; 35(4):267-286. · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein found predominantly in astrocytes. This specificity has recommended the GFAP gene promoter for targeting transgene expression to astrocytes. Although both we [Brenner et al. J. Neurosci. 14:1030–1037, (1994)] and others [Mucke et al. New Biol. 3:465–474, (1991)] have reported astrocyte specificity for GFAP promoters, we demonstrate here that these DNA sequences can also direct activity in neurons. The pattern of neuronal activity varied with both the nature of the expressed sequence and the transgene insertion site. Specifically, neuronal expression was very high for a protective protein/cathepsin A minigene, moderate for lacZ and undetectable for GFP. These findings, coupled with a survey of the literature, recommend that investigators using GFAP-driven transgenes verify specificity for each line studied, using a detection system whose sensitivity is sufficient to detect a compromising level of misexpression.
    Neurochemical Research 01/2004; 29(11). · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are commonly used in sports communities. Several studies have suggested an association between GH and AAS. We have investigated the impact of GH in rats treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND). Male Wistar rats received ND (15 mg/kg) every third day during three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) for ten consecutive days. Plasma samples were collected and peripheral organs (i.e. heart, liver, testis and thymus) were dissected and weighed. Concentration of thirteen endogenous steroids was measured in the rat plasma samples using high specificity LC-MS/MS methods. Seven steroids were detected and quantified, and concentrations of estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were significantly different among the groups, while concentrations of pregnenolone, DHEA, 17- hydroxyprogesterone and corticosterone were not altered. Administration of rhGH alone altered the plasma steroid distribution, and the results demonstrated significantly increased concentrations of plasma estrone as well as decreased concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione in the ND-treated rats. Administration of rhGH to ND-pretreated rats did not reverse the alteration of the steroid distribution induced by ND. Administration of ND decreased the weight of the thymus, and addition of rhGH did not reverse this reduction. However, rhGH administration induced an enlargement of thymus. Taken together, the plasma steroid profile differed in the four groups, i.e. control, AAS, rhGH and the combination of AAS and rhGH treatment.
    Steroids 09/2013; · 2.72 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Sep 25, 2014