An exploratory study of the relationship between face recognition memory and the volume of medial temporal lobe structures in healthy young males.
ABSTRACT A rigorous new methodology was applied to the study of structure function relationships in the living human brain. Face recognition memory (FRM) and other cognitive measures were made in 29 healthy young male subjects (mean age = 21.7 years) and related to volumetric measurements of their cerebral hemispheres and of structures in their medial temporal lobes, obtained using the Cavalieri method in combination with high resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Greatest proportional variability in volumes was found for the lateral ventricles (57%) for the cerebral hemispheres (8%) in the mean volumes of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, temporal pole and temporal lobe on the right and left sides of the brain. The volumes of the right and left parahippocampal gyrus, temporal pole, temporal lobe, and left hippocampus were, prior to application of the Bonferroni correction to take account of 12 multiple comparisons, significantly correlated with the volume of the corresponding hemisphere(p < 0.05). The volumes of all structures were highly correlated (p < 0.0002 for all comparisons) between the two cerebral hemispheres. There were no positive relationships between structure volumes and FRM score. However, the volume of the right amygdala was, prior to application of the Bonferroni correction to take account of 38~multiple comparisons, found to be significantly smaller in the five most consistent high scorers compared to the five most consistent low scorers (t = 2.77,p = 0.025). The implications for possible relationships between healthy medial temporal lobe structures and memory are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Freely available automated MR image analysis techniques are being increasingly used to investigate neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with neurological disorders. It is important to assess the specificity and validity of automated measurements of structure volumes with respect to reliable manual methods that rely on human anatomical expertise. The thalamus is widely investigated in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders using MRI, but thalamic volumes are notoriously difficult to quantify given the poor between-tissue contrast at the thalamic gray-white matter interface. In the present study we investigated the reliability of automatically determined thalamic volume measurements obtained using FreeSurfer software with respect to a manual stereological technique on 3D T1-weighted MR images obtained from a 3 T MR system. Further to demonstrating impressive consistency between stereological and FreeSurfer volume estimates of the thalamus in healthy subjects and neurological patients, we demonstrate that the extent of agreeability between stereology and FreeSurfer is equal to the agreeability between two human anatomists estimating thalamic volume using stereological methods. Using patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy as a model for thalamic atrophy, we also show that both automated and manual methods provide very similar ratios of thalamic volume loss in patients. This work promotes the use of FreeSurfer for reliable estimation of global volume in healthy and diseased thalami.Neuroinformatics 04/2012; 10(4):341-50. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A knowledge of stereology (i.e. proper sampling), the opportunities provided by computers for image analysis (i.e. image segmentation, image registration, data base exploration, 3D reconstruction), and the strengths (i.e. non-invasive) and limitations (i.e. finite resolution, image artefacts) of medical imaging equipment must all be combined for reliable quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the goal of which is to obtain a deeper understanding of the structure, function, life cycle and evolution of the human body, especially the brain, and a more objective diagnosis of disease and assessment of its response to treatment. In this article we illustrate the first of these requirements. We describe the application of proper sampling strategies and efficient computer-based counting procedures for obtaining unbiased estimates of volume by the Cavalieri method and of surface area from vertical sections. In particular, we estimate the volume of a brain tumour from Cavalieri sections, the volume of grey matter in the cerebral hemispheres from Cavalieri slices and the surface area of the cerebral cortex from vertical sections. The estimates obtained are mathematically unbiased. In each case, we assess the precision of the estimates empirically. Application of formulae available for predicting the precision of volume estimates obtained using the Cavalieri sections and slices methods is also described.
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ABSTRACT: Volumetric studies have reported relatively decreased cortical thickness and gray matter volumes in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose childhood status was retrospectively recalled. We present, to our knowledge, the first prospective study combining cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry in adults diagnosed as having ADHD in childhood. To test whether adults with combined-type childhood ADHD exhibit cortical thinning and decreased gray matter in regions hypothesized to be related to ADHD and to test whether anatomic differences are associated with a current ADHD diagnosis, including persistent vs remitting ADHD. Cross-sectional analysis embedded in a 33-year prospective follow-up at a mean age of 41.2 years. Research outpatient center. We recruited probands with ADHD from a cohort of 207 white boys aged 6 to 12 years. Male comparison participants (n = 178) were free of ADHD in childhood. We obtained magnetic resonance images in 59 probands and 80 comparison participants (28.5% and 44.9% of the original samples, respectively). Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry and vertexwise cortical thickness analyses. The cortex was significantly thinner in ADHD probands than in comparison participants in the dorsal attentional network and limbic areas (false discovery rate < 0.05, corrected). In addition, gray matter was significantly decreased in probands in the right caudate, right thalamus, and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. Probands with persistent ADHD (n = 17) did not differ significantly from those with remitting ADHD (n = 26) (false discovery rate < 0.05). At uncorrected P < .05, individuals with remitting ADHD had thicker cortex relative to those with persistent ADHD in the medial occipital cortex, insula, parahippocampus, and prefrontal regions. Anatomic gray matter reductions are observable in adults with childhood ADHD, regardless of the current diagnosis. The most affected regions underpin top-down control of attention and regulation of emotion and motivation. Exploratory analyses suggest that diagnostic remission may result from compensatory maturation of prefrontal, cerebellar, and thalamic circuitry.Archives of general psychiatry 11/2011; 68(11):1122-34. · 12.26 Impact Factor