Expression and characterization of recombinant human antithrombin III in Pichia pastoris.
ABSTRACT Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a member of the serpin superfamily and a major regulator of the blood coagulation cascade. To express recombinant human ATIII (rATIII) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, we constructed an rATIII expression plasmid which contained the ATIII cDNA encoding mature protein region connected with the truncated mAOX2 promoter and the SUC2 secretion signal, introduced it into the P. pastoris genome, and screened for a single copy transformant. The secretion of rATIII from the transformant reached a level of 320 IU/L in the culture broth at 169 h. From the culture-supernatant, rATIII was purified to over 99% by heparin-affinity chromatography and other column chromatography methods. We characterized rATIII and compared it with human plasma-derived ATIII (pATIII). The purified rATIII possessed correct N-terminal amino acid sequence, and its molecular weight by SDS-PAGE of 56,000 Da was slightly different from the 58,000 Da of pATIII. Sequence and mass spectrometry analysis of BrCN fragments revealed that posttranslational modifications had occurred in rATIII. O-linked mannosylation was found at Ser 3 and Thr 9, and in some rATIII molecules, modification with O-linked mannosyl-mannose had probably occurred at Thr 386, close to the reactive center. Although the heparin-binding affinity of rATIII was 10-fold higher than that of pATIII, its inhibitory activity against thrombin was only half. As the conformation of rATIII and pATIII by circular dichroism spectroscopy was similar, O-glycosylation in the reactive center loop was assumed to be mainly responsible for the decreased inhibitory activity. pATIII can inactivate thrombin through formation of a stable thrombin-ATIII complex, but rATIII modified with O-glycosylation in the reactive center loop may act as a substrate rather than an inhibitor of thrombin.
Article: A novel serpin with antithrombin-like activity in Branchiostoma japonicum: implications for the presence of a primitive coagulation system.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, are a group of widely distributed proteins with similar structures that use conformational change to inhibit proteases. Antithrombin (AT) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily and a major coagulation inhibitor in all vertebrates, but its evolutionary origin remains elusive. In this study we isolated for the first time a cDNA encoding an antithrombin homolog, BjATl, from the protochordate Branchiostoma japonicum. The deduced protein BjATl consisted of 338 amino acids sharing 36.7% to 41.1% identity to known vertebrate ATs. BjATl contains a potential N-linked glycosylation site, two potential heparin binding sites and the reactive center loop with the absolutely conserved sequence Gly-Arg-Ser; all of these are features characteristic of ATs. All three phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian-Inference methods also placed BjATl together with ATs. Moreover, BjATl expressed in yeast cells was able to inhibit bovine thrombin activity by forming a SDS-stable BjATl-thrombin complex. It also displays a concentration-dependent inhibition of thrombin that is accelerated by heparin. Furthermore, BjATl was predominantly expressed in the hepatic caecum and hind-gut, agreeing with the expression pattern of AT in mammalian species. All these data clearly demonstrate that BjATl is an ortholog of vertebrate ATs, suggesting that a primitive coagulation system emerged in the protochordate.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e32392. · 4.09 Impact Factor