Immune-mediated parasite clearance in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei following treatment with manzamine A.
ABSTRACT Manzamine A, a sponge-derived alkaloid, was recently shown to possess in vivo antimalarial activity against the blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. A single intraperitoneal dose of 100 micromol/kg of manzamine A suppressed parasite growth but was followed by parasite recrudescence. Forty percent of mice with recrudescing parasites were able to recover and clear the fulminating parasitaemia. Examination of sera from these mice revealed that infected mice treated with manzamine A had a suppressed IFN-gamma production but an increase in their IL-10 and IgG production. The prolonged survival of infected mice treated with manzamine A and the eventual clearance of recrudescing parasites in some of these mice involve a down-regulation of Thl responses and a switch to antibody dependent-Th2 responses.
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ABSTRACT: Manzamine A, a member of the manzamine alkaloids, was originally isolated from marine sponges of the genus Haliclona. It was recently shown to have activity against pancreatic cancer cells, but the precise mechanism of action remained unclear. To further our understanding of the mechanism of action of manzamine A, chemogenomic profiling in the yeast S. cerevisiae was performed, suggesting that manzamine A is an uncoupler of vacuolar ATPases. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed this effect on yeast vacuoles, where manzamine A produced a phenotype very similar to that of the established v-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1. In pancreatic cancer cells, 10 µM manzamine A affected vacuolar ATPase activity and significantly increased the level of autophagosome marker LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1 as observed by western blot analysis. Treatment with manzamine A in combination with bafilomycin A1 (inhibitor of autophagosome-lysosome fusion) did not change the levels of LC3-II when compared to cells treated with bafilomycin A1 alone, suggesting that manzamine A is a potential inhibitor of autophagy by preventing autophagosome turnover. As autophagy is essential for pancreatic tumor growth, blocking this pathway with manzamine A suggests a promising strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.Marine Drugs 01/2013; 11(9):3500-16. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Incorporation of parasite's subcellular fractions in subunit vaccines can be a possible approach for formulation of vaccine against malaria. In this study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of 10,000g fraction of blood stage Plasmodium berghei was evaluated in mouse model. This fraction induced higher levels of anti parasite antibodies and provided complete and long lasting protection as compared to whole parasite antigens. Antiserum raised against it was immunoadsorbed on CNBr activated sepharose-4B to elute antigens from this fraction. Eluted antigens were characterized electrophoretically, and after lyophilization these were designated as ML-I (having 55, 64, 66, 74kDa proteins), ML-II (having 51, 64, 66, 72kDa proteins) and ML-III (having only 47kDa protein) sub-fractions. Mice were immunized with these sub-fractions and immune responses induced by various immunization regimens were evaluated and compared with that of 10,000g fraction. These sub-fractions imparted partial protection except ML-III, which was non-protective. 10,000g fraction as a whole provided complete protection and generated significantly higher level of IL-2 and IFN-γ in immune mice. ML-I produced significant amount of IL-1 and IL-4 as compared to ML-II. Enhanced level of malaria-specific IgG1 was produced by ML-II, but IgG2a was significantly higher in ML-I immunized mice. Conclusively, this study identifies 10,000g fraction as a promising blood stage vaccine candidate and suggests that a vaccine based upon multiple antigens may be more efficacious as compared to single antigen based formulations.Parasitology International 10/2012; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemical investigation of the Red Sea sponge Dragmacidon coccinea led to the isolation of a new nucleoside, dragmacidoside (1), along with eight known compounds: adenosine (2), inosine (3), deoxycytidine (4), methyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (5), clionasterol (6), stigmasterol (7), campesterol (8) and brassicasterol (9). The compounds were isolated from chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the methanolic extract of the sponge, and their structures were established based on various spectroscopic data including MS, 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC). Biological testing revealed that the chloroform fraction possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in rats.Natural product research 05/2014; · 1.01 Impact Factor