Article

A Prospective Study of Drinking Patterns in Relation to Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Men

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 8.47). 10/2001; 50(10):2390-5. DOI: 10.2337/diabetes.50.10.2390
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using data from a 12-year prospective study, we determined the importance of the pattern of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in a cohort of 46,892 U.S. male health professionals who completed biennial postal questionnaires. Overall, 1,571 new cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. Compared with zero alcohol consumption, consumption of 15-29 g/day of alcohol was associated with a 36% lower risk of diabetes (RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.53-0.77). This inverse association between moderate consumption and diabetes remained if light drinkers rather than abstainers were used as the reference group (RR = 0.60, CI 0.50-0.73). There were few heavy drinkers, but the inverse association persisted to those drinking >/=50 g/day of alcohol (RR = 0.60, CI 0.43-0.84). Frequency of consumption was inversely associated with diabetes. Consumption of alcohol on at least 5 days/week provided the greatest protection, even when less than one drink per drinking day was consumed (RR = 0.48, CI 0.27-0.86). Compared with infrequent drinkers, for each additional day per week that alcohol was consumed, risk was reduced by 7% (95% CI 3-10%) after controlling for average daily consumption. There were similar and independent inverse associations for beer, liquor, and white wine. Our findings suggested that frequent alcohol consumption conveys the greatest protection against type 2 diabetes, even if the level of consumption per drinking day is low. Beverage choice did not alter risk.

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    • "While several studies showed a U-shaped relationship between alcohol and diabetes risk [1], others reported increased risks of type 2 diabetes in alcohol consumption categories of ≥25 g/day [2], >40 g/day [3], and >3 drinks per day [4]. Another study found a progressive decrease in the risk of type 2 diabetes up to a consumption of ≥50 g of alcohol per day [5]. The inconsistent results may be ascribed to differences in ascertainment of alcohol consumption and diabetes mellitus among studies and different genetic susceptibilities to alcohol exposure among study populations. "
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    01/2011; 2011(2090-2972). DOI:10.1155/2011/583682
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    • ">12 g vs 0 g 0.27 [0.07e1.14] Conigrave et al. [12] 12 years N Z 44,079 <5 g vs. 0 g 1.05 [0.95e1.24] Age 40e75 years 5e10 g vs. 0 g 0.88 [0.74e1.04] "
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    • "A huge number of studies address several forms by which T2DM could be prevented. Lifestyle changes, food intake modifications – for instance, lowering the fat content (Lovejoy 1999; Van Dam et al 2002) or enhancing the fi ber and magnesium content of the diet (Lopez-Ridaura et al 2004) – and/or physical activity promoting weight loss (Eriksson and Lindgarde 1991; Pan et al 1997; Swinburn et al 2001; Tuomilehto et al 2001; Knowler et al 2002; Kosaka et al 2005), smoking status (Tuomilehto 2005), moderate coffee (Van Dam and Hu 2005) and moderate alcohol consumption (Conigrave et al 2001), and fi nally bariatric gastric surgery (Sjöström et al 2004) may be of benefi t in the prevention of T2DM in morbidly obese patients (Gruber et al 2006). These data lend powerful credence to the signifi cant weight of lifestyle changes in T2DM prevention, but regardless of the fact that these modifi cations look to be operative in the prevention, it is highly questionable if these interventions would be sustained for the long-term. "
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