Serum lipase, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 levels in ERCP-induced pancreatitis.
ABSTRACT C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are elevated in acute pancreatitis. Limited studies have evaluated their role in ERCP-induced pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to assess the role of serum lipase, CRP, and IL-6 in ERCP-induced pancreatitis.
Eighty-five patients (62 women, 23 men; mean age 43 years; range 16-85 years) who underwent ERCP were entered in a prospective trial. ERCP-induced pancreatitis was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Serum levels of lipase, CRP, and IL-6 were measured before ERCP and at 12 to 24 hours and 36 to 48 hours after ERCP.
Mild, moderate, and severe pancreatitis occurred, respectively, in 9, 7, and 4 patients after ERCP. There were significant differences in levels of CRP and IL-6 but not lipase for patients with mild versus moderate and moderate versus severe pancreatitis. The mean CRP levels (mg/dL) at 12 to 24 hours were 0.98 +/- 0.24 in mild pancreatitis, 3.89 +/- 0.32 in moderate pancreatitis, and 12.0 +/- 1.60 in severe pancreatitis. The levels, respectively, at 36 to 48 hours were 1.60 +/- 0.31, 7.60 +/- 0.74, and 25.0 +/- 2.9. The mean IL-6 levels (pg/mL) at 12 to 24 hours were 16.6 +/- 2.06 in mild pancreatitis, 73.0 +/- 15.60 in moderate pancreatitis, and 235.5 +/- 26.31 in severe pancreatitis. The levels at 36 to 48 hours were, respectively, 18.92 +/- 3.28, 100.17 +/- 11.56, and 438.2 +/- 71.50.
Serum CRP and IL-6 levels may be useful early markers for predicting the severity of ERCP-induced pancreatitis.
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ABSTRACT: Although there are various experimental pancreatic models in animals, only a few studies have evaluated how intraductal pressure and contrast agent affect the development of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograpy (ERCP). The rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 8/group). The rats in all groups underwent laparotomy and their biliopancreatic ducts were cannulated transduodenally using a 24G catheter. In the control group, group 1, the biliopancreatic ducts of the rats were not infused with any fluid. The biliopancreatic ducts of the rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 were infused with 0.5 ml isotonic NaCl solution at 10, 2, and 50 mmHg, respectively. Groups 5, 6, and 7 were given 0.5 ml of 50% diluted contrast agent at 10, 25, and 50 mmHg, respectively. The serum amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured 24 h after the procedure. Pancreatic tissue was also evaluated histopathologically. Pancreatitis due to the contrast agent was noted when comparing the low pressure isotonic NaCl group and the low pressure contrast group (p < 0.05). Based on serum amylase and CRP values, there was a positive correlation between the severity and frequency of acute pancreatitis and pressure (p < 0.01). AST and LDH levels increased in all of the groups that underwent the procedure; however, no correlation was detected with increasing pressure or with the use of contrast agent (p > 0.05). Both pancreatic edema and the inflammatory cell infiltration score were elevated in isotonic NaCl and contrast group (p < 0.05); however, necrosis was not significantly changed (p > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the main mechanism for preventing pancreatitis after ERCP is to minimize trauma to the pancreatic canal, to cannulate the pancreas only when it is necessary, and to give contrast agent under low pressure when it is needed.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 05/2008; 393(3):367-72. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is the major complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure and there are some reports showing cytokine changes in ERCP-induced pancreatits. To investigate the association between early changes (within 24 hours) in the serum interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, and IL-6 levels and the development of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Forty five consecutive patients who underwent therapeutic ERCP and 10 patients with acute pancreatitis without ERCP were enrolled to the study. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, TNFalpha, and IL-6 were determined immediately before, 12 hours and 24 hours after ERCP. Seven of the 45 patients (15.5%) developed post-ERCP pancreatitis. The levels of IL-4 at 24 hours after ERCP were significantly lower in the patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis than in those without pancreatitis, while TNFalpha levels at 12 hours after ERCP were higher in the complicated group than those of the uncomplicated group. The ratios of TNFalpha/IL-4 at 12 and 24 hours after ERCP were found significantly higher in the patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis than in those without pancreatitis. IL-6 in the complicated patients was found significantly increased at 24 hours after ERCP. The enhancement of serum TNFalpha and IL-6 levels in the patients with ERCP-induced pancreatitis reflects the inflammatory activity. Additionally, these cytokines together with IL-4 can be used in clinical laboratory monitoring of ERCP.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 02/2008; 2008:481560. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the effect of pentoxifylline and octreotide administration on serum levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, in patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), whether they developed pancreatitis or not. Out of 590 patients undergoing ERCP, 30 who developed pancreatitis and 25 who did not (controls) were enrolled. Pentoxifylline was given to 23 patients (15 with and eight without pancreatitis) and octreotide to 19 patients (nine with and 10 without pancreatitis, respectively). Thirteen patients did not receive any preventive medication (six with and seven without pancreatitis, respectively). Blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 24 h after ERCP. IL-6 increased significantly in patients with pancreatitis at the 6 h (4.2 pg/ml SD: 5.8) and at the 24 h (6.6 pg/ml SD: 9.8) compared with patients without pancreatitis at the 6 h (2.1 pg/ml SD: 3.6) and 24 h (1.9 pg/ml SD: 2.5) (P < 0.01). No significant difference in the values of TNF-alpha and IL-6 obtained among the three study groups in patients with or without pancreatitis was observed. TNF-alpha levels at the 24 h were lower than baseline in patients with pancreatitis who received octreotide (P = 0.04). IL-6 increased in the first 24 h of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Pentoxifylline and octreotide cannot prevent IL-6 elevation but octreotide reduces TNF-alpha levels, which may have an impact on the severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis.European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 05/2009; 21(5):529-33. · 1.66 Impact Factor