Intestinal microflora plays a crucial role in the genotoxicity of the cooked food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)
ABSTRACT We investigated the impact of the intestinal microflora on the genotoxicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), a mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amine commonly found in fried meats and fish. In parallel, we also examined the effect of the microflora on the protective effect of glucotropaeolin (GT), a glucosinolate contained in cruciferous vegetables, towards IQ-induced genotoxic effect. Conventional (NF), human flora associated (HFA) and germ free (GF) rats were treated either with 90 mg/kg IQ alone, 150 mg/kg GT alone or a combination of the two by gavage and DNA damage was determined in liver and colon cells using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay. IQ caused a significant effect in both organs of all groups. However, DNA damage was most pronounced in NF animals. In colon cells, DNA migration was 6-fold more in IQ-exposed rats as compared with untreated controls. The effect measured with liver cells was similar. In comparison to NF rats, in HFA rats, tail length of the comets was 22 and 53% lower in liver and colon cells, respectively. Significantly weaker effects were seen in GF animals (66 and 75% lower damage in hepatocytes and colonocytes, respectively, than in NF animals). Pretreatment with GT led to a complete reduction of IQ-induced DNA damage regardless of the microbial status of the animals. In addition, a moderate decrease in spontaneous DNA damage was seen in animals that received GT alone. Our results show that the microflora has a strong impact on the genotoxic effects of IQ. We conclude that the alkaline SCGE assay with rats harbouring different flora opens new possibilities to investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on health risks caused by dietary carcinogens.
SourceAvailable from: Gunter G C Kuhnle[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Scope: Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that the consumption of red haem-rich meat may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer. Two hypotheses have been put forward to explain this causal relationship, i.e. N-nitroso compound (NOC) formation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Methods and Results: In this study, the NOC-derived DNA adduct O-6-carboxymethylguanine (O-6-CMG) and the LPO product malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in individual in vitro gastrointestinal digestions of meat types varying in haem content (beef, pork, chicken). While MDA formation peaked during the in vitro small intestinal digestion, alkylation and concomitant DNA adduct formation was observed in seven (out of 15) individual colonic digestions using separate faecal inocula. From those, two haem-rich meat digestions demonstrated a significantly higher O-6-CMG formation (p < 0.05). MDA concentrations proved to be positively correlated (p < 0.0004) with haem content of digested meat. The addition of myoglobin, a haem-containing protein, to the digestive simulation showed a dose-response association with O-6-CMG (p = 0.004) and MDA (p = 0.008) formation. Conclusion: The results suggest the haem-iron involvement for both the LPO and NOC pathway during meat digestion. Moreover, results unambiguously demonstrate that DNA adduct formation is very prone to inter-individual variation, suggesting a person-dependent susceptibility to colorectal cancer development following haem-rich meat consumption.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 09/2014; 58(9). DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201400078 · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 09/2014; 11(9):9038-9049. DOI:10.3390/ijerph110909038 · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our associated microbial communities play a critical role in human health and predisposition to disease, but the degree to which they also shape therapeutic interventions is not well understood. Here, we integrate results from classic and current studies of the direct and indirect impacts of the gut microbiome on the metabolism of therapeutic drugs and diet-derived bioactive compounds. We pay particular attention to microbial influences on host responses to xenobiotics, adding to the growing consensus that treatment outcomes reflect our intimate partnership with the microbial world, and providing an initial framework from which to consider a more comprehensive view of pharmacology and nutrition.Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/2014; 124(10):1-9. DOI:10.1172/JCI72335 · 13.77 Impact Factor